Military Wiki
Ahmed Izzet Pasha
1300 (1884) Sv. 1[1]
281st Grand Vizier

In office
14 October 1918 – 8 November 1918
Preceded by Mehmed Talat Pasha
Succeeded by Ahmed Tevfik Pasha
Minister of War

In office
Succeeded by Enver Pasha
Personal details
Born 1864
Monastir (Bitola), Ottoman Empire
Died 1937 (aged 72–73)
İstanbul, Turkey
Nationality albanian,ottoman
Political party Committee of Union and Progress
Religion Sunni Islam

Ahmed Izzet Pasha (Turkish: Ahmet İzzet Furgaç or Ahmet İzzet Paşa, 1864–1937) was an Ottoman general in World War I. He was also one of the last grand viziers of the Ottoman Empire(14 October 1918 - 8 November 1918), and its last minister of Foreign Affairs.

He was born in Manastir into an Albanian family.[2][3] His father was prominent civil servant of the area. From 1887 to 1890 he taught strategy and military geography in the Ottoman War College, while later until 1894 he studied in Germany under Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz.[3] As a result of his participation in the Greco-Turkish War he was promoted to the rank of Miralay (colonel). In 1908 after the Young Turk Revolution he became chief of the Ottoman general staff. During that period he was opposed to the reprisals of the Ottoman army under Mahmud Shevket Pasha against civilians during the Albanian revolts of the era. His strong opposal to Mahmud Pasha's policies led to his dismissal and reappointment in Yemen in February 1911.[3] He commanded the Third Army in the Caucasus in the early phases of World War I before being relieved of that command. Later in 1916 he was appointed commander of the Second Army which fought in the Caucasus alongside the Third Army.[2] In 1917 he was appointed to command the Anatolian group of armies, which comprised the Second and Third Armies.[4] The highest rank he held was that of the marshal. After the war he was called upon to lead the government that signed the armistice of Mudros.[2]

Although his period of office was of short duration, he was notable by being the signatory of the Armistice of Mudros on behalf the Ottoman Empire on 30 October 1918, thus putting an end to the First World War for Turkey. He was dismissed on 8 November 1918. After the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and the subsequent loss of the title of pasha, he adopted the surname Furgaç in 1934. His decisions during the Caucasus Campaign have been criticized and are regarded as one of the factors of its failure, while his subsequent high reputation in Turkey has been attributed to his successful activity during the Turkish War of Independence.[5]

See also


  1. Harp Akademileri Komutanlığı, Harp Akademilerinin 120 Yılı, İstanbul, 1968, p. 19. (Turkish)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 W.E.D. Allen and Paul Muratoff, Caucasian Battlefields, A History of Wars on the Turco-Caucasian Border, 1828-1921, 376, n 1. ISBN 0-89839-296-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Handan, Akmeşe (2005). The Birth of Modern Turkey: The Ottoman Military and the March to WWI. I.B.Tauris. pp. 25–98. ISBN 1-85043-797-1. 
  4. W.E.D. Allen and Paul Muratoff, Caucasian Battlefields, A History of Wars on the Turco-Caucasian Border, 1828-1921, 437. ISBN 0-89839-296-9
  5. Erickson, Edward (2001). Ordered to die: a history of the Ottoman army in the First World War. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 220. ISBN 1-85043-797-1. 

External links

Preceded by
Mehmed Talat Pasha
Grand Vizier
Succeeded by
Ahmed Tevfik Pasha

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