Military Wiki
African Union Mission in Somalia
Participant in the Somali Civil War
Active February 2007 – present
Leaders Lieutenant General Andrew Gutti
Major General Cyprien Hakiza
Headquarters Mogadishu
Area of
Central and southern Somalia
Originated as IGASOM

Somalia Federal Government of Somalia

Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a
Jubbaland2.png Raskamboni movement

ARS (dis)
Hizbul Islam (dis)


The African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) is an active, regional peacekeeping mission operated by the African Union with the approval of the United Nations in Somalia. It is mandated to support transitional governmental structures, implement a national security plan, train the Somali security forces, and to assist in creating a secure environment for the delivery of humanitarian aid.[1] As part of its duties, AMISOM also supports the Federal Government of Somalia's forces in their battle against Al-Shabaab militants.

AMISOM was created by the African Union's Peace and Security Council on 19 January 2007 with an initial six-month mandate.[2] On 21 February 2007 the United Nations Security Council approved the mission's mandate.[3] Subsequent six-monthly renewals of AMISOM's mandate by the African Union Peace and Security Council have also been authorised by the United Nations Security Council.[4][5]

AMISOM's UN mandate was extended for an additional six months in August 2008 by UNSCR 1831.[6][7] AMISOM’s mandate has been extended each period that it has been up for review. It is currently set to be reviewed again on 28 February 2014, following the adoption of UNSC Resolution 2093.[8]

Origin of the mission

AMISOM replaced and subsumed the IGAD Peace Support Mission in Somalia (IGASOM), which was a proposed Intergovernmental Authority on Development protection and training mission to Somalia approved by the African Union on September 14, 2006.[9] IGASOM was also approved by the United Nations Security Council on December 6, 2006.[10]

IGASOM was originally proposed for immediate implementation in March 2005 to provide peacekeeping forces for the latest phase of the Somali Civil War.[11]

At that time, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) had not yet taken control of Mogadishu, and most hopes for national unity lay with the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) which had organized in Nairobi, Kenya in 2004 and were planning to established a provisional capital in Baidoa, Bay region, Somalia.

By May 2006, the situation was radically different, as the ICU had recently been engaged by the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism or ARPCT and was fighting for control of Mogadishu in the Second Battle of Mogadishu. By June, they had established control of the capital. Fighting began to spread to other parts of the nation as the ICU gained ground.

Plans for IGASOM continued, though by July there were indications of opposition from the ICU, who saw the initiative as a US-backed, Western means to curb the growth of their Islamic movement.[12]

Until December 2006, the UN Security Council had imposed an arms embargo on the group,[13] but the embargo was partially lifted and a mandate for IGASOM issued on 6 December 2006 for six months.[14]

On 21 February 2007, the United Nations Security Council authorised the African Union to deploy a peacekeeping mission with a mandate of six months.[3] In March 2007, Ugandan military officials arrived on the ground in Somalia.[15] On 20 August 2007, the United Nations Security Council extended the African Union's authorisation to continue deploying AMISOM for a further six months and requested the Secretary-General to explore the option of replacing AMISOM with a United Nations Peacekeeping Operation to Somalia.[4]

Mission planning

Scope of the mission

IGASOM was expected to eventually reach 8,000 troops, with an expected cost of $335 million for the first year. According to UN Security Council Resolution 1725, states bordering Somalia would not be eligible to deploy troops under IGASOM. The remaining (non-bordering) IGAD member nations include Sudan, Eritrea, and Uganda. Because of the objection of the burden falling on these three nations alone (and the rivalry between Ethiopia and Eritrea), the mission was expanded to include other Member States of the African Union .

AMISOM has a different composition. As proposed, it is to comprise an initial 3 battalions, growing to a total of 9 battalions of 850 troops each, which would serve for an initial stabilization period of 6 months. The mission was to be modelled after the African Union Mission in Burundi (AMIB).[2]

ICU resistance

As early as March 25, 2005 Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys of the Union of Islamic Courts warned any peacekeepers would be unwelcome in the country. He was quoted by the BBC as saying, "We will fight fiercely to the death any intervention force that arrives in Somalia."[16] Yet at the time, the ICU was not the political or military force it was to become later.

Faced with the ascendancy of the ICU after taking over the capital in the Second Battle of Mogadishu between May and June, 2006, UN-watchers were growing concerned with the level of hostility of the ICU towards the proposed IGASOM mission.[12]

Though IGAD and the ICU met and published a cordial and formal communique[17] committing the ICU to the IGAD plans on December 2, by the time United Nations Security Council Resolution 1725 was passed on December 6,[10] the ICU was openly and militantly opposed to peacekeepers entering Somalia, and vowed to treat any peacekeepers as hostile forces. Because of regional divisions, there were also UIC resistance to allowing Ethiopian troops be part of the mission. Ethiopia, for its part, was leery of allowing Eritrean troops to be members of the IGAD peacekeeping force.

In the face of ICU threats, Uganda, the only IGAD members who had openly offered to send forces (a battalion), withdrew in the face of concerns of the present feasibility of the mission.[18][19][20] In Uganda's defense, the crisis does not allow for peacekeepers when there are active hostilities conducted with heavy weapons (see Battle of Baidoa).

On December 23, 2006, the fate and feasibility of IGASOM remained uncertain, though US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice met with Ugandan Foreign Minister Sam Kutesa to obtain assurances and emphasize plans to deploy IGASOM early in 2007.[21]

On January 1, 2007, after the defeat of the ICU in various battles in December 2006, Uganda again renewed its pledge of a battalion of troops. Between Uganda and Nigeria (which is a Member State of the African Union, but not of IGAD), there was a pledge of a total of 8,000 peacekeepers.[22] Malawi also pledged to send forces,[23] while Ghana, Rwanda and Tanzania may do so.[24]

Gathering support

Following the defeat of the Islamic Courts Union in December 2006 – January 2007 the international community began to gather both fiscal commitments as well as military forces for the mission. Nations of the African Union (AU) outside the IGAD community were drawn on to provide support.

On January 17, 2007, the US ambassador to Kenya, Michael Ranneberger, said the US pledged $40 million to support the deployment of a peacekeeping force for Somalia.[25] By January 20, the European Union followed with a pledge of 15 million euros.[26]

On January 19, 2007 the mission was formally defined and approved by the African Union at the 69th meeting of the Peace and Security Council.[2]

On January 22, 2007 Malawi agreed to send a half-battalion to a battalion (ranging widely anywhere between approximately 400 to 1,200 troops) for a peacekeeping mission to Somalia.[27]

On January 24, 2007 Nigeria pledged a battalion (a force between 770 and 1,100 troops) to join the Somali peacekeeping mission.[28]

On February 1, 2007 Burundi committed to the peacekeeping mission, pledging up to 1,000 troops.[29] By March 27, it was confirmed that 1700 Burundian peacekeepers would be sent to Somalia.[30]

On February 2, 2007, the United Nations Security Council welcomed the advent of the African Union and IGAD-led peacekeeping mission.[31]

On February 5, 2007 Tanzania offered to train Somali government troops, but not to deploy peacekeepers.[32]

On February 9, 2007 a gathering of 800 Somali demonstrators in north Mogadishu, where Islamist support was strongest, burned U.S., Ethiopian, and Ugandan flags in protest of the proposed peacekeeping mission. A masked representative of the resistance group, the Popular Resistance Movement in the Land of the Two Migrations, said Ethiopian troops would be attacked in their hotels; the same group had made a video warning peacekeepers to avoid coming to Somalia.[33] By this date, Uganda, Nigeria, Ghana, Malawi and Burundi had committed to the peacekeeping mission, but the total force was about half of the proposed 8,000-strong force.[34] Uganda had pledged 1,400 troops and some armored vehicles for a mission lasting up to 9 months, and the AU had pledged $11.6 million.[35]

On February 16, 2007 Uganda announced it would deploy 1,500 well-seasoned troops as early as Saturday, February 17, 2007 under the command of Major General Levi Karuhanga. The troops had been training for two years in preparation for the mission.[36]

The Burundian troops were technically ready to go in early August 2007, but equipment promised by the United States and France had not yet arrived.[37] On December 23, 2007, an advance force of 100 Burundians was deployed[38] and another 100 soldiers arrived on 2007-12-24.[39] By late 2008, 1,700 Burundian soldiers were deployed to Mogadishu.[40]

Expanding role

In a closed door meeting in Kampala on 22 July 2010, AU ministers agreed to expand the mission's mandate from a peacekeeping focus to a peace-enforcement focus that would engage al-Shabaab more directly. The decision came soon after deadly bomb attacks in the Ugandan capital.[41] A few days later in response to UN pressure, the AU agreed not to expand the mandate but did allow preemptive strikes against Al-Shabaab and promised more troops from other African countries.[42]

On July 23, 2010, Djibouti and Guinea pledged troops to AMISOM.[43]

In March 2011 Burundi sent 1,000 extra soldiers to AMISOM, bringing the total number of Burundi troops deployed to 4,400.[44]

In February 2012, the U.N. Security Council boosted the amount of troops deployed from 12,000 to 17,731. The approval comes after a series of recent successes against al-Shabaab fighters who had previous positions throughout the central and southern areas of the country.[45] During the same month, AU Commander Fred Mugisha suggested that Al-Shabaab was "at [its] weakest" and would likely "implode in the not so distant future" owing to successive military defeats that it suffered as well as an exodus toward the Arabian Peninsula of hundreds of the group's fighters.[46] Due to the successful military operations against the Islamists, the United States has also been stepping up efforts to train and equip the AMISOM troops in a bid to stamp out the Al-Shabaab insurgency and limit its influence.[47] In October 2011, a coordinated operation between the Somali military and the Kenyan military began against the Al-Shabaab group of militants in southern Somalia.[48][49] The mission is officially being led by the Somali army, with the Kenyan forces providing a support role.[49] On 12 November, the Kenyan government agreed to rehat its forces under the AMISOM general command,[50] and later announced in March 2012 that it would be sending 5,000 troops to join the coalition.[51] Analysts expect the additional AU troop reinforcements to help the Somali authorities gradually expand their territorial control.[50]



No. Name Country Took command Left command Note
1 General Levi Karuhanga  Uganda 14 February 2007 3 March 2008
2 Major General Francis Okello  Uganda 3 March 2008 7 July 2009
3 Major General Nathan Mugisha[52]  Uganda 7 July 2009 15 June 2011[53]
4 Major General Fredrick Mugisha  Uganda 15 June 2011[53][54] 2 May 2012 [55]
5 Lieutenant General Andrew Gutti[52]  Uganda 2 May 2012

Deputy commanders

No. Name Country Took command Left command Note
1 Major General Juvenal Niyoyunguruza  Burundi 2008 17 September 2009 KIA
2 Major General Cyprien Hakiza  Burundi September 2009 April 2010
3 Major General Maurice Gateretse  Burundi April 2010


No. Name Country Took command Left command Note
1 Captain Paddy Akunda[52]  Uganda March 2007 2008
2 Major Barigye Bohuko[56]  Uganda 2008 3 May 2011
3 Lt. Colonel Paddy Akunda[57][58]  Uganda 3 May 2011 8 Jul 2012
4 Colonel Ali Houmed  Djibouti 8 Jul 2012 Incumbent

UPDF contingent commanders

No. Name Country Took command Left command Note
1 Colonel Mikael Ondoga[52]  Uganda 3 May 2011
2 Colonel Paul Lokech[52]  Uganda 3 May 2011 23 Sep 2013
3 Brigadier Deus Sande[59]  Uganda 23 Sep 2013 25 Sep 2013
4 Brigadier Dick Olum[59]  Uganda 25 Sep 2013 Incumbent

Djibouti contingent commanders

No. Name Country Took command Left command Note
1 Colonel Osman Dubad  Djibouti Dec 2012 Incumbent

Civil staff

The civilian staff of AMISOM has been operating from Nairobi, Kenya since 2008 due to the security situation in Mogadishu, Somalia.[60]

Since the beginning of 2011 AMISOM and TFG has taken control over several strategic places in Mogadishu after several offensives against Al-Shabaab. With the expanded control over the capital AMISOM on 16 May 2011 moved the civil staff and police officers to Mogadishu. This includes Special Representative of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission for Somalia (SRCC) Ambassador Boubacar Gaoussou Diarra and deputy (SRCC) Honourable Wafula Wamunyinyi.[60]

Much of the key logistical support for the force is provided by the United Nations Support Office for AMISOM (UNSOA), a field mission of the UN Secretariat Department of Field Support.

Training for contingents

The United States has provided extensive training for contingents headed for Somalia. In the first half of 2012, Force Recon Marines from Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force 12 (SPMAGTF-12) trained soldiers from the Uganda People's Defence Force.[61] In the northern spring of 2012 [March–April–May], Marines from SPMAGTF-12 also trained Burundian soldiers. In April and May, members of Task Force Raptor, 3rd Squadron, 124th Cavalry Regiment of the Texas Army National Guard, took part in a separate training mission with the BNDF in Mudubugu, Burundi. SPMAGTF-12 has also sent its trainers to Djibouti, another nation involved in the Somali mission, to work with an army unit there.

At the same time, U.S. troops have assisted in training the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces in preparation for their deployment to Somalia later this year[when?]. In June 2012, U.S. Army Africa commander Major General David R. Hogg spoke encouragingly of the future of Sierra Leone's forces in conjunction with Kenya.[62] As of June 2012, the RSLAF troops have not yet deployed; the Sierra Leonean defence minister said on June 23, 2012, that the battalion might depart for the Horn 'some time in September [2012].'[63]

In addition, a significant amount of support to AMISOM has been provided by private companies. "Bancroft Global Development, headquartered on Washington's Embassy Row, employs about 40 South African and European trainers who work with [AMISOM's] Ugandan and Burundian troops.[64] Bancroft director Michael Stock told The EastAfrican that these mentors are embedded with AMISOM units in Mogadishu and southern and central Somalia. They coach commanders on to predict and defeat the tactics which foreign fighters bring from outside East Africa and teach to al-Shabaab." Bancroft "does not receive funding directly from the US government but is instead paid by AMISOM, which is then reimbursed by the State Department for these outlays." The Associated Press reports that Bancroft has been paid $12.5 million for its work in Somalia since 2008.

A security analyst in Somalia listed three primary private security companies/private military companies operating in Mogadishu.[65] DynCorp, who provide logistical support in the Somali capital; Bancroft International, who provide training to TFG and AMISOM personnel, as well as assisting with community service delivery; and Pacific Architects & Engineers.



Country Number of troops

(at any given time)

UgandaUganda People's Defence Force 5,700[66] 83[67][68]-2,700+[69] killed
KenyaKenya Defence Forces 5,000[51] 36-154 killed[70][71]
BurundiBurundi National Defence Force 4,400[44][72] 417 killed[67][68][73] 4 missing,[74] 1 captured[75]
DjiboutiDjibouti Armed Forces 960[76] 3 killed[77]
Sierra LeoneRepublic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces 850[62][78] none
NigeriaNigerian Armed Forces 260[44][72][79][80] none
GhanaGhana Armed Forces 9[44][72] none
Cameroon, Mali, Sénégal, Zambia 4[44][72] none
Total 17,183 539[73][77]-3,000[81] killed

In July 2012, it was reported that Burundi had formed an engineer company to send to AMISOM.[82]

Casualties and Injuries


  • March 7, 2007 – Two Ugandan soldiers were wounded in an ambush in Mogadishu.[83]
  • March 31, 2007 – A mortar attack in Mogadishu killed one and wounded five Ugandan soldiers.[84]
  • May 16, 2007 – Four Ugandan soldiers were killed and five wounded by a roadside bomb when their convoy was attacked in Mogadishu.[85]
  • August 1, 2007 – Two Ugandan soldiers were wounded when their convoy was ambushed en route to a hotel where AMISOM Major General Levi Karuhanga was staying.[86]
  • October 23, 2007 – A mortar attack in Mogadishu wounded three Ugandan soldiers.[87]
  • October 24, 2007 – One Ugandan soldier was wounded in a grenade attack on the AU base at the Km4 intersection in Mogadishu.[88]


  • April 8, 2008 – One Burundian soldier was killed and another wounded in a suicide car bomb attack on an AU base in Mogadishu.[89][90][91]
  • May 20, 2008 – Five Ugandan soldiers were wounded in fighting in Mogadishu.[92]
  • August 1, 2008 – A Ugandan soldier was killed by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu.[93]
  • September 14, 2008 – One Ugandan soldier was killed and two wounded when their convoy, inspecting for mines in Mogadishu, was ambushed.[94]
  • September 15, 2008 – One Ugandan soldier was killed by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu.[95][96]
  • October 14, 2008 – Two Burundian soldiers were wounded by a roadside bomb near Mogadishu airport.[40]
  • December 3, 2008 – One Burundian soldier was killed in an attack on an AU base in Mogadishu.[97]


  • January 6, 2009 – One Ugandan soldier was killed and one wounded by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu.[98]
  • February 3, 2009 – One Ugandan soldier was wounded by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu.[99]
  • February 22, 2009 – 11 Burundian soldiers were killed and 15 wounded in a double suicide attack on their base in Mogadishu.
  • March 18, 2009 – One Ugandan soldier was killed and two wounded by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu.[100]
  • April 9, 2009 – One Burundian soldier died after a suicide attack the day before.[101]
  • May 6, 2009 – One Burundian soldier was killed in an ambush in Mogadishu.[102]
  • June 18, 2009 – One Ugandan soldier was killed and one was wounded by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu.[103]
  • July 12, 2009 – Three Ugandan soldiers were killed and one was wounded in a mortar attack on the presidential palace in Mogadishu.[104]
  • July 23 – One Ugandan soldier was killed in fighting at the Villa Somalia in Mogadishu.[105]
  • July 23–29, 2009 – An epidemic of Leptospirosis hit the Burundian and Ugandan military camps in Mogadishu killing three Burundian and two Ugandan soldiers. Another 18 Burundian soldiers were placed in quarantine. About 50 Burundian and 17 Ugandan soldiers were evacuated for medical treatment to Nairobi, Kenya.[106][107]
  • September 17, 2009 – 17 soldiers were killed and 29 wounded in a suicide attack by Islamist rebels on the headquarters of the African Union force in Mogadishu. At least four civilians were also killed and more than 10 wounded. 12 of those killed were Burundian soldiers and five were Ugandan. Among the dead was the AMISOM deputy commander Maj. Gen. Juvenal Niyonguruza, from Burundi. Also, one of the wounded was AMISOM commander Gen. Nathan Mugisha, from Uganda.[108]
  • November 15, 2009 – A spokesman for the Burundian forces stated that mortars landed inside the Amisom base, injuring two soldiers.[109]


  • April 27 – A suicide car bomb detonated against an Amisom base injured two Ugandan soldiers. Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility.[110]
  • May 20 – One Ugandan soldier was killed by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu.[111]
  • June 3 – Two Ugandan soldiers were killed and five were wounded in fighting in Mogadishu.[112]
  • July 4 – Two Ugandan soldiers were killed and three were wounded in fighting in Mogadishu.[113]
  • July 23 – Two Ugandan soldiers were killed when their base at the presidential palace was attacked in Mogadishu.[114]
  • August 4 – The Ugandan army confirmed that since the start of the mission 26 of their soldiers have been killed and 68 injured.[115]
  • August 30 – Four Ugandan soldiers were killed and eight wounded in a mortar attack conducted by the al-Shabab militia on the Somali presidential palace.[116]
  • September 9 – Two Ugandan soldiers were killed when suicide bombers attacked Mogadishu's airport.[117]
  • September 16 – Three Ugandan soldiers were wounded while re-taking a police station from insurgents in Mogadishu.[118]
  • September 24 – A Ugandan soldier was killed and two wounded in fighting in Mogadishu in the area of the parliament.[119]
  • October 25 – An attack against a base of AMISOM by Al-Shabab had killed one soldier and injured several among the Ugandan forces.[120][121]
  • October 30 – A bomb against the Jalle Siad military camp in Mogadishu killed 3 Burundian soldiers and injured four.[122]
  • November 1 – Al Shabaab attack a convoy of AMISOM, left at least seven people dead and three others wounded, including AMISOM forces.[123]
  • November 17 – Two soldiers were wounded in an ambush against their convoy in Mogadishu.[124]
  • December 2 – Five AMISOM soldiers were lightly wounded during a battle with the forces of Al-Shabab.[125]


  • January 10 – A Burundian peacekeeper was killed in Mogadishu by al-Shabaab insurgents.[126]
  • February 23–March 4 – 53-82 AU troops were killed in clashes with al-Shabab fighters during an offensive in Mogadishu, 190 other AMISOM troops were also wounded.[127][128] In addition, a Burundian soldier was captured alive by militants.[75] These were, at the time, certainly the heaviest losses since AMISOM deployed. 43 of those killed were confirmed as Burundian soldiers and 10 as Ugandans.[127] Also, 110 of the wounded were Burundians. Beside the 43 killed in action, four Burundian soldiers were declared missing in action.[74]
  • March 5 – A Burundian soldier was injured by the controlled explosion of a car bomb of al-Shabab militants.[129] AMISOM forces won back the rebel-controlled town of Bulo Hawo with the help of forces loyal to the Somali government.[130]
  • March 17 – Six AU soldiers were killed in heavy clashes between Somali government troops backed by AMISOM in Mogadishu and al-Shabab militants.[131]
  • May 12–June 11 – 12 AU soldiers were killed (including 7 Ugandans) and 13+ injured during the Bakaara market offensive in Mogadishu.
  • July 29 – Four Ugandan soldiers were killed and five others wounded during clashes in Mogadishu. An AMISOM tank was also destroyed.[132][133][134]
  • August 1 – At least two AMISOM soldiers were killed and others wounded in a suicide attack on an AMISOM base in Mogadishu.[135]
  • October 10 – One AMISOM soldier was killed and six injured in an operation in North East of Mogadishu. The former Pasta Factory and critical junction, Ex Control Bal’ad, are after that in Government hands.[136]
  • October 20 – At least 70 Burundian soldiers were killed and their bodies filmed and paraded by Al-Shabaab following the battle of Deynile, Mogadishu.[137][138] An unknown number of soldiers were wounded. One AU armoured vehicle was also destroyed in the fighting.[139][140]
  • October 23 – Two AU soldiers were wounded when a suicide bomber blew himself up near a convoy of AU peacekeepers in Mogadishu.[141]
  • October 29 - Al-Shabab militants have attacked an AMISOM compound injuring 2 AU soldiers in the Somali capital Mogadishu.[142]
  • December 25 - A Burundian soldier was killed by a landmine bomb and 2 others were wounded in Mogadishu.[143]


  • January 14 - A Ugandan soldier was killed by a Somali soldier in Mogadishu. The reasons for the act are unknown.[144]
  • January 20 - Two AU soldiers were injured in a military offensive to consolidate security in Mogadishu.[145]
  • March 2 - Two Ugandan soldiers were injured during the capture of the city of Maslah.[146]
  • March 29 - Four Burundian soldiers were wounded in a battle on Daynile District on Mogadishu.[147]
  • August 31 - 5 Kenyan soldiers were missing after the capture of Miido. A search and rescue was mounted. Three other soldiers were injured.[148] Three of the soldiers were found alive two days later, but the fate of the other two soldiers remained unknown.[149] A few days later, their bodies were shown in a video posted by the insurgents.[150]
  • September 19 - Two AMISOM troops were injured during the capture of Janaa Cabdalla town located 50 kilometres to the west of the port city of Kismayo in the Lower Jubba region.[151]
  • October 24 - Four Ugandan soldiers were killed by a bomb while advancing towards Baidoa.[67]
  • October 29 - 3-4 Ugandan soldiers were killed and seven wounded in an attack by two suicide bombers on an AMISOM base in Mogadishu.[152]
  • November 19- At least two Kenyan soldiers who are part of the African Union(AU) peacekeeping force in Somalia were killed in Garissa, a base for security forces in Kenya fighting insurgents in neighbouring Somalia, Kenya's army spokesman said on Monday.[153]

See also


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  3. 3.0 3.1 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1744.- | / | S-RES-1744(2007) }} {{#strreplace: - | / | S-RES-1744(2007) }} {{{date}}}. (2007) Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  4. 4.0 4.1 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1772.- | / | S-RES-1772(2007) }} {{#strreplace: - | / | S-RES-1772(2007) }} {{{date}}}. (2007) Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  5. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1801.- | / | S-RES-1801(2008) }} {{#strreplace: - | / | S-RES-1801(2008) }} {{{date}}}. (2008) Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  6. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1831.- | / | S-RES-1831(2008) }} {{#strreplace: - | / | S-RES-1831(2008) }} {{{date}}}. (2008) Retrieved 2008-08-21.
  7. United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report 5942.- | / | S-PV-5942 }} {{#strreplace: - | / | S-PV-5942 }} 23 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-21.
  8. "United Nations Security Council Resolution 2093".  S/RES/2093 (2013), 6 March 2013
  9. "African Union endorses regional peace plan". Reuters. September 14, 2006.
  10. 10.0 10.1 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1725.- | / | S-RES-1725(2006) }} {{#strreplace: - | / | S-RES-1725(2006) }} {{{date}}}. (2006) Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  11. "IGAD to deploy peacekeepers despite opposition by faction leaders", IRIN, March 16, 2005
  12. 12.0 12.1 Security Council Report: July 2006: Somalia Security Council Report
  13. Sam Kutesa: We call on the Security Council to lift the arms embargo to enable deployment of IGASOM and AU Forces."
  14. [1][dead link]
  15. [2][dead link]
  16. Somali 'jihad' on foreign troops BBC
  17. Communique IGAD
  18. Security Council Report: December 2006: Somalia Security Council Report
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  20. Uganda in quandary of sending peacekeepers to Somalia Shabelle Media Networks
  21. [3] Voice of America
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