|Accuracy International AWM or AI-AWM|
|L115A3 sniper rifle.jpg|
British Armed Forces AWM 338, designated L115A3
|Place of origin||United Kingdom|
|Used by||See Users|
|Weight||6.5 kg (14.3 lb) (.300 Winchester Magnum)|
6.9 kg (15.1 lb) (.338 Lapua Magnum)
with stock, bipod and empty magazine
|Length||1200 mm (47.2 in) (.300 Win. Mag.)|
1230 mm (48.4 in) (.338 Lapua Magnum)
|Barrel length||660 mm (26 in) (.300 Win. Mag.)|
686 mm (27 in) (.338 Lapua Magnum)
|Cartridge||.300 Winchester Magnum|
.338 Lapua Magnum
|Effective range||1,100 m (1,203 yd) (.300 Winchester Magnum) |
1,500–1,700 m (1,640–1,859 yd) (.338 Lapua Magnum)
|Feed system||5-round detachable box magazine|
|Sights||detachable aperture type iron sights|
day or night optics
The Accuracy International AWM (Arctic Warfare Magnum or AI-Arctic Warfare Magnum) is a bolt-action sniper rifle manufactured by Accuracy International designed for magnum rifle cartridge. The Accuracy International AWM is also unofficially known as the AWSM (Arctic Warfare Super Magnum), which typically denotes AWM rifles chambered in .338 Lapua Magnum.
Arctic Warfare Magnum System
The Accuracy International AWM rifle is a variant of the British Accuracy International Arctic Warfare (AW) rifle that was the basis of a family of sniper rifles using the Arctic Warfare name. As such the design details of the AWM variant are similar to the ones found in the basic AW rifle system. Compared to the AW, the AWM has a longer bolt to accommodate dimensionally larger magnum-length cartridges such as the .300 Winchester Magnum and the .338 Lapua Magnum. The bolt head, locking ring, and extractor and magazines were also revised to work with the increased size and operating pressures of magnum rifle cartridges.
The AWM features a detachable single stack removable box magazine which holds five rounds. The normal cartridges for this rifle, and the ones which have been accepted by NATO for use in AWM rifles, are .300 Winchester Magnum and .338 Lapua Magnum.
Normally, the AWMs are outfitted with a Schmidt & Bender PM II 10×42/MILITARY MK II 10×42 telescopic sight with 10× fixed power of magnification. However, a Schmidt & Bender PM II/MILITARY MK II with variable magnification of either 3–12×50, 4–16×50 or 5–25×56 can be used if the operator wants more flexibility to shoot at varying ranges, or when a wide field of view is required. Accuracy International actively promotes fitting the German made Schmidt & Bender PM II/MILITARY MK II product line as sighting components on their rifles, which is rare for a rifle manufacturer. The German and Russian Army preferred a telescopic sight made by Zeiss over Accuracy International's preference.
The AWM rifle is normally supplied in a metal transit case together with a telescopic sight, mount, butt spacers, bipod, spare magazines, sling, cleaning and tool kits.
.300 Winchester Magnum
The .300 Winchester Magnum (7.62×67 mm) cartridge was designed as a magnum hunting cartridge and offers a flatter trajectory and a significant increase in muzzle velocity, wind resistance and supersonic range over the dimensionally smaller 7.62×51 mm NATO cartridge. The ability of the .300 Winchester Magnum chambering to obtain fairly high muzzle velocities combined with their diameter or calibre relatively heavy and long very-low-drag bullets significantly enhance the hit probability at longer ranges and hence the effective range compared to the 7.62×51 mm NATO cartridge. For precision shooting, the Federal Gold Medal Match grade is the most commonly used ammunition.
The AWM chambered for the .300 Winchester Magnum is fitted with a fluted, stainless steel barrel that is 660 mm (26") long for optimum muzzle velocity and nominal weight. The .300 Winchester Magnum barrel features a non-traditional 279.4 mm (1:11 in) right-hand twist rate.
.338 Lapua Magnum
The AWM in the .338 Lapua Magnum (8.6×70mm) calibre was designed as a dedicated long range sniper rifle.
The AWM .338 Lapua Magnum is fitted with a stainless steel, fluted, 686 mm (27") barrel, which research has found to be the best compromise between muzzle velocity on the one hand, and weight and length on the other.
The rifle's barrel has an unconventional 279 mm (1:11 in) right-hand twist rate, optimized for firing .338-calibre very-low-drag bullets up to 16.85 g (260 gr). When the AWM .338 Lapua Magnum was developed military issue cartridges were loaded with 16.2 g (250 gr) very-low-drag bullets. Longer, heavier very-low-drag bullets like the Sierra HPBT MatchKing .338-calibre 19.44 g (300 gr) and the 21st century 19.44 gram (300 grain) .338-calibre HPBT Scenar can be used, but require a 254 mm (1:10 in) twist rate to stabilize them under high air density conditions as found on arctic coasts.
A limitation of AWM rifles is that .338 Lapua Magnum cartridges loaded to the Commission Internationale Permanente pour l'Epreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives (C.I.P.) maximum allowed overall length of 93.50 mm (3.681 in) do not fit in the magazine due to a lack of internal magazine length. This is because the AWM bolt action was initially developed for dimensionally smaller cartridges, and then modified for the .338 Lapua Magnum chambering. Ammunition manufacturers produce .338 Lapua Magnum military issue cartridges loaded with 16.2 g (250 gr) very-low-drag bullets (overall length ≤ 91.44 mm / 3.600 in) that fit in the 91.50 mm (3.602 in) long AWM magazines. As long as .338 Lapua Magnum cartridges that fit in the magazines are used, the AWM rifles can be used as repeating rifles instead of single shot rifles.
To address .338 Lapua Magnum ammunition length limitations of the AWM Accuracy International has since developed the AX338 long range rifle as the AWM successor model. The bolt action of the AX338 is longer and wider than the AWM, and the internal magazine is lengthened, allowing the unimpaired use of .338 Lapua Magnum cartridges loaded to the C.I.P. (Permanent International Commission for the Proof of Firearms Portable) maximum allowed overall length of 93.50 mm (3.681 in). Furthermore, the AX338 has a 238 mm (1:9.375 in) twist rate to adequately stabilize longer, heavier .338 caliber very-low-drag projectile designs that became more common in the 21st century.
Second longest confirmed sniper kill
In November 2009, British Army sniper Corporal of Horse (CoH) Craig Harrison, a member of the Household Cavalry, set the record for longest recorded sniper kill, at the time, by killing two Taliban machine gunners consecutively south of Musa Qala in Helmand Province in Afghanistan at a range of 2,475 m (2,707 yd) taking 10 shots to hit the target, using a L115A3 Long Range Rifle.
In the reports CoH Harrison mentions the environmental conditions were perfect for long range shooting: no wind, mild weather, clear visibility.
Ballistics and use of environment and equipment to achieve the aiming solution
According to JBM Ballistics, using drag coefficients (Cd) provided by Lapua, the L115A3 has an approximate supersonic range (speed of sound = 340.3 m/s) of 1,375 m (1,504 yd) under International Standard Atmosphere conditions at sea level (air density ρ = 1.225 kg/m3) and 1,548 m (1,693 yd) at the 1,043 m (3,422 ft) altitude or elevation (air density ρ = 1.1069 kg/m3) of Musa Qala. This illustrates how differences in environmental conditions can significantly affect bullet flight.
The Schmidt & Bender MILITARY MKII 5-25×56 mm scope used by Harrison on the L115A3 Long Range Rifle has windage and elevation adjustment of 0.1 milliradian (mil), double turn elevation turret, and parallax and illumination control. The sight has a maximal vertical elevation range of 26 mil, and the sight adjustment increment of 0.1 mil equates to a 247.5 mm (9.74 in) point of impact shift at a distance of 2,475 m (2,707 yd). To increase the maximal elevation range Accuracy International produces mounts for telescopic sights with a 13.1 mil (45 MOA) built in vertical cant designed for their .338 Lapua Magnum rifles fitted with the 5-25×56 telescopic sight. Even with a 13.1 mil canted mount the employed sighting system is not able to dial in over 39.1 milliradian of vertical aiming correction, which is significantly less than Harrison required during his record shot.
The external ballistics software program by JBM Ballistics predicts that the bullets of British high pressure (over-pressure rounds with pressures and velocities significantly exceeding standard maximums for the cartridge) .338 Lapua Magnum cartridges using 16.2 g (250 gr) Lapua LockBase B408 bullets fired at 936 m/s (3,071 ft/s) muzzle velocity under International Standard Atmosphere conditions at 1,043 m (3,422 ft) elevation (air density ρ = 1.1069 kg/m3) and assuming a flat fire scenario (a situation where the shooting and target positions are at equal elevation) and a 100 m (109 yd) zero (the distance at which the rifle is sighted in) arrive at 2,475 m (2,707 yd) distance after approximately 6.017 seconds flight time at 251.8 m/s (826 ft/s) velocity and have dropped 120.95 m (396.8 ft) or in angular units 48.9 milliradian (168 MOA) on their way. Harrison had to use the P4 reticle offering 0.5 mil spaced holdover hash marks in his 5-25×56 telescopic sight to compensate for the lack of vertical aiming correction and thus achieve the required aiming solution. The long horizontal line at 5× zoom or magnification represent 49.1 milliradian (168.6 MOA) or slightly over the required assumed vertical elevation.
British Armed Forces
The British Armed Forces adopted the AWM rifle chambered in .338 Lapua Magnum as the L115A1 Long Range Rifle. The British L115A1 rifles are outfitted with Schmidt & Bender 3-12×50 mm PM II/MILITARY MKII 3-12×50 mm 0.1 mil telescopic sights. The L115A1 is in service with the Royal Marines, British Army and RAF Regiment in Afghanistan and Iraq.
In November 2007 the British Ministry of Defence (MOD) announced that their snipers in the Army, Royal Marines and RAF Regiment were to get a new rifle. Accuracy International would supply 580 L115A3 Long Range Rifles with day telescopic sights. The L115A3 is being supplied as part of a broader Sniper System Improvement Programme (SSIP) program which also includes night sights, spotting scopes, laser range finders and tripods. The L115A3 rifle was first deployed to Afghanistan in May 2008. Some features of the improved L115A3 include:
- Schmidt & Bender 5-25×56 mm PM II LP/MILITARY MKII 5-25×56 0.1 mil parallax, illumination, double turn telescopic sights;
- Suppressors to reduce the flash and noise signature;
- Folding stocks for better carrying in a backpack;
- Adjustable cheek pieces for more comfort and better eye alignment with the telescopic sight;
- Butt spikes (monopods) to aid stability during firing;
- Adjustable bipods, which differ from the original Accuracy International bipod;
- 5-round box magazines.
The MOD claims a muzzle velocity of 936 m/s (3,071 ft/s) for the L115A3.
Dutch Armed Forces
The AWM-F commonly referred to as Geweer Lange Afstand (GLA) (Long Range Rifle) chambered in .338 Lapua Magnum has been introduced from 1996 by the Dutch Army’s Korps Commandotroepen snipers and the AWM is used by all Schutter Lange Afstand (SLA) (Long Range Marksmen) of the 11 Luchtmobiele Brigade (airborne infantry), 13 Gemotoriseerde Brigade (motorised infantry), 43 Gemechaniseerde Brigade (Mechanised infantry). Recently (2007) the snipers of the Netherlands Marine Corps also received this sniper rifle. The Dutch AWM(-F) rifles are outfitted with Schmidt & Bender 10×42 PM II and 3-12×50 PM II telescopic sights. The rifles are designated as Accuracy, antipersoneel scherpschuttersgeweer .338 (Accuracy anti personnel sniper rifle .338) and the Military of the Netherlands claim a maximum effective range of 1,100 m (1,203 yd) for their AWM(-F) rifles and have used these rifles in Afghanistan with great success.
German Armed Forces
Since 1998 the Bundeswehr fields an AWM-F chambered in .300 Winchester Magnum (7.62 × 67 mm in Bundeswehr nomenclature), with a 3–12×56 SSG telescopic sight made by the German company Zeiss, under the designation of G22 (for Gewehr 22) or Scharfschützengewehr 22 (sniper rifle 22). The German G22 rifles have folding stocks and emergency iron sights. For their G22 rifles the Bundeswehr claims an effective range of 1,100 m (1,203 yd).
The German ammunition manufacturer Metallwerk Elisenhütte Nassau (MEN) has specially developed 7.62 × 67 mm ammunition for the G22.
The Carl Zeiss Optronics (previously branded as Hensoldt) telescopic sight has a mil-dot reticle and a scale that enables the operator to see the dialled in elevation setting through the rifle scopes ocular. The Bundeswehr 3–12×56 SSG telescopic sight differs somewhat from the further developed 3–12×56 SSG-P telescopic sight. The Bundeswehr telescopic sight has no parallax setting option and the range scale has a setting range from 0 to 10 instead of 0 to 11 symbolizing the 11.2 milliradian elevation adjustment range shown in the current Carl Zeiss Optronics 3–12×56 SSG-P telescopic sight brochure.
Royal Malaysia Police
The Unit Tindakhas (UTK) of the Pasukan Gerakan Khas (PGK) snipers from Royal Malaysia Police using the AWSM, chambered in .338 Lapua Magnum alongside the 7.62mm Accuracy International Arctic Warfare.
Norwegian Special Forces
Russian Alpha Group
South Korean Special Forces
The 707th Special Mission BN from ROK Army and the Republic of Korea Naval Special Warfare Flotilla from ROK Navy use AWM series sniper rifles chambered in .338 Lapua Magnum outfitted with Schmidt & Bender 3-12×50 PM II telescopic sights. It has some telescopic sight attachment problems.
- Armenia: AWM – .338 Lapua Magnum
- Bangladesh: AWM – .338 Lapua Magnum (Bangladesh Army Sniper Team)
- Czech Republic: AWM used by 601st Special Forces Group
- Egypt: Used by the Rapid Deployment Forces (Egypt)
- France:Used by the GIGN and the Commandos Marine special forces units
- Georgia:Used primarily by law enforcement agencies.
- Germany: AWM-F (Designated G22) – .300 Winchester Magnum
- Indonesia: AWM is used by the Komando Pasukan Katak (Kopaska) tactical diver group and Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus) special forces group
- Ireland: – .338 Lapua Magnum used by Army Ranger Wing marksmen.
- Israel: AWM - .338 Lapua Magnum 
- Italy: AWM – .338 Lapua Magnum is used by the 9th Parachute Assault Regiment "Col Moschin"
- Malaysia: AWSM - .338 Lapua Magnum used by the Malaysian police PGK special operations.
- Netherlands: AWM and AWM-F – .338 Lapua Magnum
- Norway
- Poland: AWM-F – .338 Lapua Magnum round; GROM; 1 Pułk Specjalny Komandosów
- Russia: AWM-F – .338 Lapua Magnum used by the Alpha Group counter-terrorism unit
- United Kingdom: AWM – .338 Lapua Magnum
- United States: AWM - .338 Lapua Magnum 
- Philippines: AWM - .338 Lapua Magnum used by the Presidential Security Group
- Singapore:Used to be used by Singapore Armed Forces Commando Formation
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- "Metallwerk Elisenhütte Nassau (MEN) company website". http://www.men-defencetec.de/en/home/. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
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- [dead link]
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to G 22.|
- Demigodllc.com: Military .338 Lapua Rifles Compared, the SAKO TRG-42 and AI-AWSM by Zak Smith
- Demigodllc.com: Accuracy International AWSM Photos and More AWSM & TRG-42 Photos
- Modern Firearms
- Picture – Arctic Warfare Magnum rifle
- Sniper Central, 2004
|Longest confirmed combat sniper-shot kill
2,475 m (2,707 yd / 1.538 mi)
using 16.2 g (250 gr) Lapua LockBase B408 bullets by Craig Harrison
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|