|Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras|
|Established||1792/1811 (new campus in 1944)|
|Commander||Brigadier general Júlio César de Arruda|
|Location||Resende, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil|
The Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras (English: Military Academy of the Black Needles - named after the Pico das Agulhas Negras; AMAN) is the biggest among several schools of formation of combatant officers of the Brazilian Army. It originated in 1792 with the creation of the Royal Academy of Artillery, Fortification and Drawing - first military school of the Americas - in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Today the Academy is located in the city of Resende, in the state of Rio de Janeiro.
In 1792, Queen Mary I of Portugal founded the Real Academia de Artilharia, Fortificação e Desenho (Royal Academy of Artillery, Fortification and Drawing) in Rio de Janeiro, modeled after the similar existing Academy in Lisbon, intended to the train the artillery and engineering officers of the Portuguese Army in Brazil. This Academy is considered the pioneer of the military and engineering education in the Americas.
The transfer of the Portuguese Royal Court from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro in 1808 caused King Dom João VI to inaugurate in 23 April 1811 the Royal Military Academy, incorporating the Royal Academy of Artillery, Fortification and Drawing. Its first location was at the Train's House of the Artillery, today the location of the National Historical Museum of Brazil.
In 1812, the Train's House was transferred to the Plaza of São Francisco, a place that offered better conditions for warfare maneuvers. With the Independence of Brazil in 1822, it was renamed the Imperial Military Academy.
With the ever-growing need to improve the training of the officers of the Brazilian Army, it was merged with the School of War in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande Do Sul. In 1913, with the objective of uniting all the military institutes of War and Application, was created the Military Academy.
With the urgent need to expand its facilities to absorb an Army that grew and got operational was created, on January 1, 1944 in the city of Resende, the Military School of Resende. It was renamed the Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras in 1951.
The AMAN campus in Resende occupies 67 km². It contains several complexes, including the Main Complex, the Physical Education Department, the Equestrian Department, the Firearms Department and the Instruction Park. The Main Complex was expanded in 1988 to two times its original size, the expansion consisting mainly of refectories and cadets' lodgings. The Command and Services Battalion includes the Headquarters Company, a Service Company, a Military Police Company, a Guard Company, a Rifleman Company, and two Corps of Cadets Auxiliary Companies. It is the largest Battalion of the Brazilian Army.
The Cadet corps are constituted by a Commander, a Deputy Commander, a staff and diverse Courses and peculiar Sections, composites for Officers and Cadets with the diverse missions and characteristics. Specialties include infantry, cavalry, artillery, combat engineering, communications, quartermaster, and ordnance.
Cadets receive training in riding, weaponry, and physical fitness.
A cadet's career at the academy is divided into three periods. The first period, basic formation, takes place during the first two years. The second period, qualification, takes up the third year. The third period, qualification and intensification of instruction, takes place in the fourth year.
In the first period, the cadet's personality is adjusted to military life and combat. The cadet undergoes physical qualification and training in various abilities. During the second period, the cadet practices command and continues with physical training. The objective of the third period is the development of the cadet to meet the positions and functions of subordinate officer and captain.
Other activities include maneuvers, the Academic Olympics, sporting competitions against the Naval School and the Academy of the Air Force (NAVAMAER) and the South American Festival of Cadets.
Alumni from the Military Academy in Rio de Janeiro, both in the old campus (Rio de Janeiro) and new campus (Resende, Rio de Janeiro state):
- Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias - Aide-de-Camp to Emperor Dom Pedro II and Prime Minister of Brazil.
- José Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco - Prime Minister of Brazil.
- Alfredo d'Escragnolle Taunay, Viscount of Taunay - Brazilian aristocrat, military officer and writer.
- Hermes Rodrigues da Fonseca - Marshal and President of Brazil.
- Eurico Gaspar Dutra - Marshal, President of Brazil and Minister of War during World War II.
- Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco - Marshal and President of Brazil.
- Artur da Costa e Silva - General and President of Brazil.
- Luís Carlos Prestes - Brazilian communist leader.
- Emílio Garrastazu Médici - General and President of Brazil.
- Golbery do Couto e Silva - General and founder of the National Intelligence Service of Brazil (SNI).
- João Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo - President of Brazil, previous chief of the National Intelligence Service of Brazil.
- Aldo Vieira da Rosa - Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University.
- Floriano Peixoto Vieira Neto - Major General, Commander of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH).
- Carlos Lamarca - Brazilian Army Captain who deserted to become a communist guerilla.
- Enzo Martins Peri - Major General, the current Brazilian Army commander.
- "Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras" (in Portuguese). Brazilian Army. 2008-03-11. http://www.aman.ensino.eb.br/. Retrieved 2008-03-11.
- Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras Official website (Portuguese)
- Resende.com City maps and tourist information (Portuguese)
- Video - Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras - Programa TVendo e Aprendendo 19/05/2009 (Portuguese)
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