On the top a SA-18 (Igla) missile, launch tube and grip stick. Below is a SA-16 (Igla-1) missile and launch tube.
|Type||Man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS)|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Unit cost||US$60,000–80,000 (as of 2003)|
|Weight||10.8 kg (24 lb)|
|Length||1.574 m (5.16 ft)|
|Warhead||1.17 kg (2.6 lb) with 390 g (14 oz) explosive|
|contact and grazing fuzes|
|Engine||solid fuel rocket motor|
|5.2 km (3.2 mi)|
|Flight ceiling||3.5 km (11,000 ft)|
|Speed||800 m/s (peak), about Mach 2.3|
|two color infrared|
The 9K38 Igla (Russian: Игла́, "needle") is a Russian/Soviet man-portable infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM). "9K38" is the Russian GRAU designation of the system. Its US DoD designation is SA-18 and its NATO reporting name is Grouse; a simplified, earlier version is known as the 9K310 Igla-1, or SA-16 Gimlet. The latest variant is the 9K338 Igla-S NATO reporting name SA-24 Grinch. It has been fielded by the Russian Army since 2004.
There exists a two-barrel 9K38 missile launcher called Djigit.
- 1 History
- 2 Operational history
- 3 Other variants
- 4 Comparison chart to other MANPADS
- 5 Use in plot against Air Force One
- 6 Operators
- 7 Other uses
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The development of the Igla short-range man-portable air defense system (MANPADS) began in the Kolomna OKB in 1972. Contrary to what is commonly reported, the Igla is not an improved version of the earlier Strela family (Strela-2/SA-7 and Strela-3/SA-14), but an all new project. The main goals were to create a missile with better resistance to countermeasures and wider engagement envelope than the earlier Strela series MANPADS systems.
Technical difficulties in the development quickly made it obvious that the development would take far longer than anticipated however, and in 1978 the program split in two: while the development of the full-capability Igla would continue, a simplified version (Igla-1) with a simpler IR seeker based on that of the earlier Strela-3/SA-14 would be developed to enter service earlier than the full-capability version could be finished.
The 9K310 Igla-1 system and its 9M313 missile were accepted into service in the Soviet army on 11 March 1981. The main differences from the Strela-3 included an optional Identification Friend or Foe system to prevent firing on friendly aircraft, an automatic lead and super elevation to simplify shooting and reduce minimum firing range, a slightly larger rocket, reduced drag and better guidance system extend maximum range and improve performance against fast and maneuverable targets, an improved lethality on target achieved by a combination of delayed impact fuzing, terminal maneuver to hit the fuselage rather than jet nozzle, an additional charge to set off the remaining rocket fuel (if any) on impact, an improved resistance to infrared countermeasures (both decoy flares and ALQ-144 series jamming emitters), and slightly improved seeker sensitivity.
According to the manufacturer, South African tests have shown the Igla's superiority over the contemporary (1982 service entry) but smaller and lighter American FIM-92A Stinger missile. However, other tests in Croatia did not support any clear superiority, but effectively equal seeker performance and only marginally shorter time of flight and longer range for the Igla.
According to Kolomna OKB, the Igla-1 has a Pk (probability of kill) of 0.30 to 0.48 against unprotected targets which is reduced to 0.24 in the presence of decoy flares and jamming. In another report the manufacturer claimed a Pk of 0.59 against an approaching and 0.44 against receding F-4 Phantom II fighter not employing infrared countermeasures or evasive maneuvers.
The full-capability 9K38 Igla with its 9M39 missile was finally accepted into service in the Soviet Army in 1983. The main improvements over the Igla-1 included much improved resistance against flares and jamming, a more sensitive seeker, expanding forward-hemisphere engagement capability to include straight-approaching fighters (all-aspect capability) under favourable circumstances, a slightly longer range, a higher-impulse, shorter-burning rocket with higher peak velocity (but approximately same time of flight to maximum range), and a propellant that performs as high explosive when detonated by the warhead's secondary charge on impact.
The naval variant of 9K38 Igla has the NATO reporting name SA-N-10 Grouse.
The Igla – 1M missile consists of a Ground Power Supply Source (GPSS), Launching Tube, Launching Mechanism & Missile (9M 313-1).
The most notable combat use of the SA-16 was during the Gulf War. On January 17, 1991, a Panavia Tornado bomber of the British Royal Air Force was shot down by an Iraqi MANPADS that may have been an SA-16 (or SA-14) after an unsuccessful bombing mission.
Private intelligence company Stratfor asserts that SA-16 missiles were used in the 1994 shoot down of a Rwandan government flight, killing the presidents of Rwanda and Burundi and sparking the Rwandan Genocide, which resulted in approximately 800,000 deaths in 100 days. One source claims France may have supplied the missiles from captured Iraqi stocks of the 1991 war.
During the Cenepa War between Ecuador and Peru, both the Ecuadorian Army and the Peruvian Army (which had 90 functioning firing units) utilized SA-16 missiles against aircraft and helicopters. A Peruvian Air Force Mi-25 attack helicopter was shot down on February 7, 1995 around Base del Sur, killing the 3 crewmen, while an Ecuadorian Air Force A-37 Dragonfly was hit but managed to land on February 11. Hits on additional Ecuadorian aircraft were claimed but could not be confirmed.
During Operation Deliberate Force, on August 30, 1995; a French Mirage 2000D was shot down over Pale with an Igla fired by air defence units of the Army of Republika Srpska. The pilots were captured and freed in December 1995.
Syrian Civil War
Video has surfaced showing Islamist rebels using a SA-16 on a Syrian government helicopter. Such weapons were believed to have been looted from a Syrian army base in Aleppo in February 2013.
Several variants of the Igla were developed for specific applications:
- Export version.
- Improved version of 9K38 Igla. Entered service in Soviet Military during late 1980s.
- A version for paratroopers and special forces with separate launch tube and missile.
- Air-launched version, mainly for combat helicopters.
- A version with heavier warhead at the cost of a slight reduction in range and speed.
- Export version?
- Igla-S (SA-24 Grinch)
- The newest variant, which is a substantially improved variant with longer range, more sensitive seeker, improved resistance to latest countermeasures, and a heavier warhead.
- Strelets Igla-S / Igla
- The Strelets is designed for remote automated firing of the Igla and Igla-S surface-to-air missile by single shot, ripple or in salvo.
Comparison chart to other MANPADS
|9K34 Strela-3||9K38 Igla||9K310 Igla-1||9K338 Igla-S ||FIM-92 Stinger|
ready to shoot
|16.0 kg (35.3 lb)||17.9 kg (39 lb)||17.9 kg (39 lb)||19 kg (42 lb)||14.3 kg (32 lb)|
|Weight, missile||10.3 kg (23 lb)||10.8 kg (24 lb)||10.8 kg (24 lb)||11.7 kg (26 lb)||10.1 kg (22 lb)|
|Weight, warhead||1.17 kg (2.6 lb),
390 g (14 oz) HMX
|1.17 kg (2.6 lb),
390 g (14 oz) HMX
|1.17 kg (2.6 lb),
390 g (14 oz) HMX
|2.5 kg (5.5 lb),
585 g (20.6 oz) HMX
|2–3 kg (4.4–6.6 lb),|
450 grams (16 oz) HE
|Annular blast fragmentation|
|Fuze type||Impact and grazing fuze.||Delayed impact,
magnetic and grazing.
magnetic and grazing.
magnetic and grazing.
|Flight speed, average / peak||470 m/s (1,100 mph) sustained||600 m/s (1,300 mph)
/ 800 m/s (1,800 mph)
|570 m/s (1,300 mph) sustained
(in +15 °C temperature)
|?||700 m/s (1,600 mph) |
/ 750 m/s (1,700 mph)
|Maximum range||4,105 m (13,468 ft)||5,200 m (17,100 ft)||5,000 m (16,000 ft)||6,000 m (20,000 ft)||4,500 m (14,800 ft)|
|Maximum target speed, receding||260 m/s (580 mph)||360 m/s (810 mph)||360 m/s (810 mph)||400 m/s (890 mph)||?|
|Maximum target speed, approaching||310 m/s (690 mph)||320 m/s (720 mph)||320 m/s (720 mph)||320 m/s (720 mph)||?|
|Seeker head type||Nitrogen-cooled,
lead sulfide (PbS)
Indium antimonide (InSb)
uncooled lead sulfide (PbS)
Indium antimonide (InSb)
Indium antimonide (InSb)
|Seeker notes||Aerospike to reduce
supersonic wave drag
to reduce supersonic wave drag
Use in plot against Air Force One
On August 12, 2003, as a result of a sting operation arranged as a result of cooperation between the American, British and Russian intelligence agencies, Hemant Lakhani, a British national, was intercepted attempting to bring what he had thought was an older-generation Igla into the USA. He is said to have intended the missile to be used in an attack on Air Force One, the American presidential plane, or on a commercial US airliner, and is understood to have planned to buy 50 more of these weapons.
After the Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti (FSB) detected the dealer in Russia, he was approached by US undercover agents posing as terrorists wanting to shoot down a commercial plane. He was then provided with an inert Igla by undercover Russian agents, and arrested in Newark, New Jersey, when making the delivery to the undercover US agent. An Indian citizen residing in Malaysia, Moinuddeen Ahmed Hameed and an American Yehuda Abraham who allegedly provided money to buy the missile were also arrested. Yehuda Abraham is President and CEO of Ambuy Gem Corp. Lakhani was convicted by jury in April 2005, and was sentenced to 47 years in prison.
Igla and Igla-1 SAMs have been exported from the former Soviet Union to over 30 countries, including Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria (former producer), Croatia, Cuba, East Germany, Egypt, Ecuador, Eritrea, Finland, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, the Republic of Macedonia, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, North Korea, Peru, Poland, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam and Zimbabwe. Several guerrilla and terrorist organizations are also known to have Iglas. Alleged Operatives of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam a rebel organization fighting for a homeland for Tamils in the island of Sri Lanka were arrested in August 2006 by undercover agents of the FBI posing as arms dealers, while trying to purchase the Igla. In 2003 the unit cost was approximately US$60,000–80,000.
Large numbers have been sold to the government of Venezuela, raising concerns that they may end up in the hands of Colombian guerillas.
- Finland: known as ItO 86; former operator
- North Korea: Locally produced
- Poland: Not military used – only bought license
- Serbia: Locally produced
- Soviet Union: Former operator
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: 20 pieces
- United Arab Emirates
- Finland: Known as ItO-86M; former operator
- Sri Lanka
- South Korea
- Soviet Union: Passed on to successor states
- Syria: Syrian Arab Republic
- Azerbaijan: 300 launchers with 1500 missiles.
- Libya: Photo evidence of the truck mounted twin version in service with the Libyan Army emerged during the 2011 Libyan civil war starting from March 2011. 482 Igla-S missiles were imported from Russia in 2004. Some of them were unaccounted at the end of the war and they could have ended up in Iranian inventory. Israeli officials say that Igla-S were looted from Libyan warehouses in 2011 and transported by Iranians through Sudan and turned over to militants in Gaza and Lebanon.
- Syria: Photo evidence of SA-24 MANPADS (man-portable) in the possession of Syrian rebels was first reported on November 13, 2012. "As far as I know, this is the first SA-24 Manpads ever photographed outside of state control," said one expert.
- The GLL Igla is a recent Russian scramjet project conducted by TsIAM.
- 9K338 9M342 Igla-S / SA-24 Grinch
- DJIGIT (SA-18) | Russian Military Analysis
- Lawrence, Richard R.. Mammoth Book Of How It Happened: Battles, Constable & Robinson Ltd, 2002.
- "Aircraft Database on F-16.net" Aircraft profile records for Tail 84-1390. Retrieved: 11 May 2011.
- " Russia's Strela and Igla portable killers". a digital copy of an article from "Journal of Electronic Defense, January, 2004 by Michal Fiszer and Jerzy Gruszczynski". Retrieved: 15 June 2009.
- The Continuing Threat of Libyan Missiles | Stratfor
- Fight | Sayf
- <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Cooper, Tom. "Peru vs. Ecuador; Alto Cenepa War, 1995". ACIG.org. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Anti-Aircraft Missiles Stolen by Guerrillas in Peru
- Serbs free two French pilots
- <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Hookham, Mark (16 June 2013). "UK jihadist's video reveals missile cache". The Times. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- "KBM IGLA-S MANPADS: Russian Manpackable Shoulder-Launched Fire-and-Forget Surface-to-Air Missile System". http://www.defensereview.com/kbm-igla-s-manpads-russian-manpackable-shoulder-launched-fire-and-forget-surface-to-air-missile-system/. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- Raytheon FIM-92 Stinger
- Three Men Charged with Smuggling Missiles
- Ambuy Gem Corp
- Perfil personal de ZoomInfo de Yehuda Abraham
- FBI`s press release
- <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzales Highlights Success in the War on Terror at the Council on Foreign Relations". US Department of Justice. 1 December 2005. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- Forero, Juan (2010-12-15). "Venezuela acquired 1,800 Russian antiaircraft missiles in '09". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/12/11/AR2010121103148.html. Retrieved 2010-12-15. "leak"
- APA - List of weapons and military vehicles sold by Russia to Azerbaijan last year publicized
- SA-24 Grinch 9K338 Igla-s portable air defense missile system technical data sheet specifications UK - Army Recognition - Army Recognition
- Coughlin, Con (22 September 2011). "Iran 'steals surface-to-air missiles from Libya'". The Daily Telegraph. London. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/iran/8782103/Iran-steals-surface-to-air-missiles-from-Libya.html.
- The deadly dilemma of Libya's missing weapons - CSMonitor.com
- Fulghum, David (13 August 2012). "Israel’s Long Reach Exploits Unmanned Aircraft". http://www.aviationweek.com/Article.aspx?id=/article-xml/AW_08_13_2012_p51-481846.xml&p=3.
- <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>C.J. Chivers (November 13, 2012). "Possible Score for Syrian Rebels: Pictures Show Advanced Missile Systems". New York Times. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
- จรวดต่อสู้อากาศยาน SA-24 Grinch Igla-S
- Venezuela compra en Rusia sistemas portátiles de defensa antiaérea. Vedomosti | Noticias | RIA Novosti
- ’Kẻ hủy diệt’ trực thăng của Phòng không Việt Nam - ’Ke huy diet’ truc thang cua Phong khong Viet Nam - DVO - Báo Đất Việt
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to SA-16.|
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|