A 9K34 Strela-3 (SA-14) missile and launch tube.
|Type||Man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS)|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Weight||10.3 kilograms (23 lb)|
|Length||1.47 metres (4.8 ft)|
|Flight altitude||2,300 metres (7,500 ft)|
|Speed||410 metres per second (1,500 km/h)|
The 9K34 Strela-3 (Russian: 9К34 «Стрела-3»; English: arrow) man-portable air defence missile system (MANPADS) was developed in the Soviet Union as a response to the poor performance of the earlier 9K32 Strela 2 (SA-7 Grail) system. "9K34" is its GRAU designation and its NATO reporting name is SA-14 Gremlin. The missile was largely based on the earlier Strela 2, and thus development proceeded rapidly. The new weapon was accepted to service in the Soviet Army in January 1974.
The most significant change over the Strela 2 was the introduction of an all-new infra-red homing seeker head. The new seeker worked on FM modulation (con-scan) principle, which is less vulnerable to jamming and decoy flares than the earlier AM (spin-scan) seekers, which were easily fooled by flares and even the most primitive infrared jammers. Most importantly, the new seeker also introduced detector element cooling in the form of a pressurized nitrogen bottle attached to the launcher.
The effect of cooling was to expand the seeker's lead sulphide detector element's sensitivity range to longer wavelengths (slightly over 4 µm as opposed to 2.8 µm of uncooled PbS elements). In practice this made possible the tracking of cooler targets over longer ranges, and enabled forward-hemisphere engagement of jets under favourable circumstances.The seeker also had better tracking rate, enabling the missile to track maneuvering of fast and approaching targets.
A negative side effect from the aforementioned improvements was increased missile weight, which caused a slight decrease in the kinematic performance of the original Strela-2 (SA-7). Against relatively slow, low-altitude battlefield air threats the overall effectiveness was much improved.
Strela-3 missiles have been exported to over 30 countries.
The original Strela-3 missile was the 9M36. The follow-on to the Strela-3 was Igla.
The naval version of this missile has the NATO reporting name of SA-N-8.
An Airbus A300 cargo plane was hit by a Strela-3 missile after takeoff from Baghdad International Airport, and despite losing hydraulic power managed to land safely.
During the War in Abkhazia (1992-1993), a Russian Mi-8 helicopter was shot down by a Georgian Army SA-14 on December 14, 1992, resulting in the death of 3 crew and 58 passengers, most of them Russian refugees. A Georgian Air Force Su-25 was shot down over Nizhnaya Eshera on July 4, 1993 by SA-14, and several other aircraft on both sides may have been shot down by SA-14s.
One BAE Sea Harrier of the 801 Naval Air Squadron, operating from the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal, was shot down during its attack two Serbian T-55 tank in Bosnia. The pilot, Lieutenant Nick Richardson, ejected and landed in territory controlled by friendly Bosnian Muslims (16 April 1994).
|System||9K32M Strela-2M (missile: 9M32M)||9K34 Strela-3 (missile: 9M36) ||FIM-43C Redeye|
|Mass, full system, ready to shoot||15 kg||16 kg||13.3 kg|
|Weight, missile||9.8 kg||10.3 kg||8.3 kg|
|Length||1.44 m||1.47 m||1.40 m|
|Warhead||1.15 kg (0.37 kg HMX) directed-energy blast fragmentation||1.17 kg (0.39 kg HMX) directed-energy blast fragmentation, including a 20g secondary charge to set off remaining propellant||1.06 kg M222 (0.36 kg HTA-3) blast fragmentation|
|Seeker type||AM-modulated (spin scan), uncooled PbS detector element (1–2.8 µm sensitivity range). Tail-chase only.||FM-modulated (con scan), nitrogen-cooled PbS detector element (2–4.3 µm sensitivity range). Limited forward hemisphere (all-aspect) capability||AM-modulated, uncooled PbS detector element. Tail-chase only.|
|Maximum range||4200 m||4100 m||4500 m|
|Speed||430 m/s||410 m/s||580 m/s|
|Target's maximum speed, approaching/receding||150/260 m/s||310/260 m/s||–/225 m/s|
|Engagement altitude||0.05-2.3 km||0.03-2.3 km||0.05-2.7 km|
- Cooper, Tom. "Georgia and Abkhazia, 1992-1993: the War of Datchas". ACIG.org. http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_282.shtml. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Cooper, Tom. "Zaire/DR Congo, 1980-2001". ACIG.org. http://www.acig.info/CMS/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=246&Itemid=47. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Cooper, Tom. "Afghanistan, 1979-2001; Part 2". ACIG.org. http://www.acig.info/CMS/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=158&Itemid=47. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Istorija sozdanija i razvitija vooruzhenija i vojennoi theniki PVO suhoputnyh voisk Rossii
- General Dynamics FIM-43 Redeye
- Petukhov, Sergei I.; Shestov I.V. (1998). History of design and development of missile systems and military systems of AAW of Russian Land Forces / Istorija sozdanija i razvitija vooruzhenija i vojennoi tehniki PVO suhoputnyh voisk Rossii, 1.-2.. VPK Publishing.
- "Directory of U.S. Military Rockets and Missiles, FIM-43". Archived from the original on 17 April 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080417220914/http://www.designation-systems.net/dusrm/m-43.html. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
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