It was formed on 13 July 1941 based on 52nd Rifle Corps as a Stavka Reserve. In the beginning the army included the 119th Rifle Division, the 242nd Rifle Division, the 243rd NKVD Rifle Division, the 251st NKVD Rifle Division, the 51st Tank Division, artillery and other units. The army was built around a solid core of NKVD border guard servicemen. The army's first commander Maj-Gen Khomenko was the former commander of the Ukrainian District of NKVD Border Guards.
On 15 July 1941 the army was transferred to the Front of the Reserve Armies and conducted defensive works on the defensive line running through Selizharovo-Olenino-Wasiliewo.
From the end of June to August 1941 the army was part of the Western Front (from 21 July) and took part in the Battle of Smolensk (10 July-10 September). During battle army's forces striked at Dukhovszczina from the region south-west of Bielyj. Army attacking on flanks of the German Ninth Army stopped and sapped the strength of the enemy forces.
In September–October army conducted defensive operations in region south-west of Bielyj on Rzhev direction.
On 17 October 1941 army was included into Kalinin Front and took part in Kalinin Defensive Operation (5 December 1941 – 7 January 1942).
On 18 November army was again included into Western Front. As its army fought in the Klin-Solnecznogorsk Defensive Operation (15 November-5 December) and from 6 December on in the Klin-Solnecznogorsk Offensive Operation (6–25 December). During the operation 30th Army together with 1st Shock Army liberated Klin (15 December)and destroyed large German units. As a part of Kalinin Front (from 17 December 1941) during January–April 1942 army participated in Rzhev-Vyazma Strategic Operation (8 January-20 April) In the end of operation army troops reached nearly to Rzhev and went on to the defence.
On 1 March 1942 the army consisted of the 174th, 178th, 243rd, 348th, 359th, 363rd, 371st, 375th, and 379th Rifle Divisions, and the 75, 76, 139, 145, 146, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, and 222nd Separate Ski Brigades.
Later (from 31 August included into Western Front) until the end of 1942 army defended and strengthened its position going from to time to time on the offensive.
On March 1943 troops of the army participated in the Rzhev-Vyazma Operation (2–31 March) during which course it liberated Rzhev and on 1 April reached the line Nefedovschina-Pantiukchy where it stopped and dug into defensive positions.
On 1 May Army was reformed into 10th Guards Army
General Major of NKVD Khomenko W.A. (July–November 1941 )
General Major Lelyschenko D. D. (November 1941-November 1942)
General Major from February 1943 General Lieutanant Kolpakchi W.Ia (November 1942-April 1943)
Members of the Army's Military Soviet:
Brigade Commissar Abramov N.W. (June 1941-February 1942)
General Major Doronin Ja. A. (February 1942 -April 1943
Chiefs Of Staff
Lieutanant Colonel Baderko A.G. (June–August 1941
Colonel Winogradov A.I. (August–November 1941)
General Major of the Artillery Khetagurov G.I. (November 1941-December 1942)
Colonel from February 1943 General Major Sosedov L.B (December 1942-April !943.
- Sbornik Boevych Dokumentov Vielikoj Otczestviennoj Voiny wypisk 37 Prikaz Stawki Wierchnovo Komandowania nr 00305 ot 13 Julia 1941 o Sformirovaniu 30 Armii i jej zadaczach page 26
- Fugate Bryan, Lev Dvoriecki Blitzkrieg nad Dnieprem Bellona 2001 page 143
- tashv.nm.ru, Combat composition of the Soviet Army, 1 March 1942, accessed October 2011
- Vielikaja Otcczestvennaja Diestvuszowaja Armija 1941 -1945 Animi Fortitudi Moskva 2005 Kluczkove Pole page 96-97
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