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21 cm L/35
Type Naval gun
Place of origin German Empire
Service history
In service 1890-1936
Used by Argentina
China
Denmark
Japan
The Netherlands
Wars First Sino-Japanese War
Boxer Rebellion
Russo-Japanese War
Production history
Designer Krupp
Designed 1886
Manufacturer Krupp
Produced 1890
Variants No.1 and No.2
Specifications
Weight No.1: 13.9 t (15.3 short tons)
No.2: 14.6 t (16.1 short tons)
Length 7.3 m (23 ft 11 in)
Barrel length 6.7 m (22 ft 0 in)

Shell weight 140 kg (310 lb)
Caliber 209.3 mm (8.24 in) 35 caliber
Muzzle velocity No.1: 548 m/s (1,800 ft/s) with
43 kg (95 lb) propellant charge
No.2: 580 m/s (1,900 ft/s) with
54 kg (119 lb) propellant charge[1]

The 21 cm L/35 were a family of German naval guns developed in the years before World War I and used in limited numbers. This gun armed warships of Argentina, China, Denmark, Japan and The Netherlands before and after World War I.[2] It was used in the First Sino-Japanese War, Boxer Rebellion and a ship captured by Japan in the Sino-Japanese War was later used in the Russo-Japanese War.

History[]

In 1886 Krupp designed the 21 cm L/35 and started production for export customers in 1890. The 21 cm L/35 was produced in two models the No.1 and No.2. The main difference between the two guns was their weight, rifling, propellant charges and muzzle velocities. Otherwise their overall length and ammunition were the same.[3]

Naval Use[]

Argentina

China

  • Jingyuan-class - The primary armament of this class of two armored cruisers, Jingyuan and Laiyuan was two 21 cm L/35 guns mounted in a forward barbette.
  • Jiyuan - The primary armament of this protected cruiser was two 21 cm L/35 guns mounted in a forward barbette.
  • Zhiyuen-class - The primary armament of this class of two protected cruisers, Jingyuen and Zhiyuan was two barbette mounted 21 cm L/35 guns fore and one 21 cm L/35 gun aft.[5]

Denmark

  • HDMS Valkyrien - This protected cruiser had a primary armament of one shielded 21 cm L/35 gun fore and one shielded 21 cm L/35 gun aft.[6]

The Netherlands

  • Evertsen-class - This class of three coastal defense ships had a primary armament of two turret mounted, No.2, 21 cm L/35 guns fore and one turret mounted 21 cm L/35 gun aft.[7]
  • Hydra-class - This class of fourteen gunboats had a primary armament of one forward, shielded, No. 1, 21 cm L/35 gun after 1890's refits.[8]
  • HNLMS Koningin Wilhelmina der Nederlanden - This protected cruiser had a secondary armament of one shielded, No.2, 21 cm L/35 gun aft.[9]
  • HNLMS Reiner Claeszen - This monitor had a primary armament of one, No. 1, 21 cm L/35 gun in a forward turret.[10]
  • HNLMS Sumatra - This protected cruiser had a primary armament of one, No. 1, 21 cm L/35 gun in a forward turret.[11]

Notes[]

  1. Friedman, Norman (2011-01-01). Naval weapons of World War One. Seaforth. ISBN 9781848321007. OCLC 786178793. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786178793. 
  2. "GR 8.2in 21 cm 35cal Krupp Single". http://navalhistory.flixco.info/H/283792x54503/8330/a0.htm. 
  3. Friedman, Norman (2011-01-01). Naval weapons of World War One. Seaforth. ISBN 9781848321007. OCLC 786178793. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786178793. 
  4. "VEINTICINCO DE MAYO protected cruiser (1891) - Argentinean Navy (Argentina)". http://www.navypedia.org/ships/argentina/arg_cr_25_de_mayo91.htm. 
  5. Robert, Gardiner, (1997-01-01). Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1906-1921. Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0851772455. OCLC 833677044. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/833677044. 
  6. "Valkyrien protected cruiser (1890) - Danish Royal Navy (Denmark)". http://www.navypedia.org/ships/denmark/dk_cr_valkyrien.htm. 
  7. "REINIER CLAESZEN monitor (1894) - Royal Dutch Navy (Netherlands)". http://www.navypedia.org/ships/netherlands/nl_bb_reinier_claeszen.htm. 
  8. "HYDRA gunboats (1873-1876) - Royal Dutch Navy (Netherlands)". http://www.navypedia.org/ships/netherlands/nl_of_hydra73.htm. 
  9. "KONINGIN WILHELMINA DER NEDERLANDEN protected cruiser (1894) - Royal Dutch Navy (Netherlands)". http://www.navypedia.org/ships/netherlands/nl_cr_koningin_wilhelmina_der_niderlanden.htm. 
  10. "REINIER CLAESZEN monitor (1894) - Royal Dutch Navy (Netherlands)". http://www.navypedia.org/ships/netherlands/nl_bb_reinier_claeszen.htm. 
  11. "SUMATRA protected cruiser (1891) - Royal Dutch Navy (Netherlands)". http://www.navypedia.org/ships/netherlands/nl_cr_sumatra.htm. 

References[]

  • Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7. 
  • Chesneau, Roger & Kolesnik, Eugene M., eds (1979). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905. Greenwich, UK: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-245-5. 

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