|1st Mechanized Corps|
|Active||1940-Aug 1941, 1942-46|
|Role||Mechanized Corps (Soviet)|
|Major General M. L. Cherniavsky|
The 1st Mechanized Corps was a formation in the Soviet Red Army during World War II. Initially formed in March 1940 it was attached to the Leningrad Military District, & held in reserve near Pskov fortified region in Soviet Union It was under the command of Major General M. L. Cherniavsky when the German Operation Barbarossa began in June 1941. It initially comprised the 1st and 3rd Tank Divisions, & the 168th Mechanized Division. On 22 June 1941, 1st Mechanized Corps consisted 31,439 Men, 1037 Tanks, 239 Armoured Cars, 148 Artillery Pieces, 146 Mortars, 4730 Vehicles, 246 Tractors & 467 Motorcycles including lighter models T-26, Bt 7, & T-28's.
After the invasion began the Leningrad Military District was renamed Northern Front, Commanded by Lieutenant General Markian M. Popov. The front fielded 14th, 7th Armies, 23rd Armies, the 65th Rifle Corps & the Leningrad Military District forces including the 2nd Division of NKVD troops. The 1st Mechanized Corps was heavily engaged in the first battles of Operation Barbarossa, particularly during the Baltic Operation (1941). On 29 June 1941 the 1st Mechanized Corps was ordered to reinforce new defences anchored on the Velikaya River near Ostrov on the former Stalin Line After the spectacular advances by Georg-Hans Reinhardt's XLI Panzer Corps which had crossed the Daugava River. However it was unable to hold the line. On 11 July 1941 Col P Poluboiarov, Northwestern Front armoured directorate reported that the 1st Mechanized Corps had at the present moment fewer than 100 Tanks remaining. Pskov & Ostrov were captured within weeks & Leningrad invested. On 2 August 1941 Colonel Limarenko, Chief of Staff of the 1st Mechanized Corps reported that the Corps 'possessed no T-34 or Kv-1s when sent into action 20 were delivered only after combat began. The 1st Mechanized Corps was disbanded in August 1941, although 1st Tank Division remained in 14th Army.
Circa 1946 became 1st Mechanized Division, and after a brief period as 19th Motor Rifle Division in 1965 became 35th Motor Rifle Division. Served much of the Cold War with 20th Guards Army in Group of Soviet Forces in Germany.
Sources & References
- Glantz, Stumbling Colossus, 1998, p. 120.
- David Glantz, The Battle for Leningrad 1941-1944, 2002, p. 34.
- Glantz, Stumbling Colossus, 1998, p. 229.
- Glantz, Stumbling Colossus, 1998, p. 127.
- Glantz, Stumbling Colossus, 1998, p. 126.
- Steven H Newton, 'Panzer Operations on the Eastern Front- The Memoirs of General Raus 1941-1945' (2003) Da Capo Press ISBN 0-306-81247-9
- David Glantz (1998), 'Stumbling Colossus - The Red Army On The Eve of World War', Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0879-6
- David Glantz (2002), 'The Battle for Leningrad 1941-1944', Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1208-4
- Christer Bergstrom, (2007) 'Barbarossa - The Air Battle: July–December 1941, Ian Allan Publishing.ISBN 1-85780-270-5
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