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Years in aviation: 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926
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Years: 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926

This is a list of aviation-related events from 1923:

Events

  • The Gallaudet Aircraft Corporation is absorbed by the Consolidated Aircraft Corporation.[1]
  • During 1923, French Breguet 14T bis Sanitaire air ambulances evacuate 870 wounded French personnel from the Levant and French Morocco.[2]

January

  • Air Union is created by the merger of Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes (CMA) with Grands Express Aériens (CGEA).
  • January 1 – The French aviator Joseph Sadi-Lecointe sets a new air speed record, averaging 335 km/hr (208 mph) at Istres, France.[3]
  • January 9 or 17 – The Cierva C.4, designed by Juan de la Cierva y Cordoniu and piloted by Alejandro Gomez Spencer, makes its first flight, covering a distance of about 180 meters (590 feet) at Cuatro Vientos airfield in Spain. It is the first flight by an autogyro, and the first stable flight by any form of rotary-wing aircraft.
  • January 13 – The Aeromarine Airways Aeromarine 75 flying boat Columbus suffers engine failure during a flight from Key West, Florida, to Havana Cuba, and lands in the Florida Strait. Buffeted by 10-to-15-foot (3-to-4.5-meter) waves, it begins to fill with water. Four passengers die, but the ferry ship H. M. Flagler saves the other three passengers and both crew members.[4]
  • January 20 – After suffering an engine failure in flight, the Cierva C.4 autogyro uses autorotation to land without damage.
  • January 31 – The Cierva C.4 autogyro flies a 4-kilometer (2.5-statute mile) circuit at Cuatro Vientos airfield in Spain.

February

March

April

  • April 1 – The Royal Air Force abandons the squadron as the basic organizational unit for those of its aircraft operating from Royal Navy ships, reorganizing them into six-plane flights.[9]
  • April 10 – Daimler Airways begins the first scheduled airline service between London and Berlin (via Bremen and Hamburg).
  • April 16–17 – United States Army Air Service Lieutenants John Arthur Macready and Oakley G. Kelly establish a new endurance record, staying aloft for 36 hours 5 minutes in a Fokker T-2, covering a distance of 2,518 miles (4,052 km).

May

  • May 1 – HMS Hermes enters service with the Royal Navy. She is the first ship designed from the waterline up as an aircraft carrier and the first aircraft carrier with an island superstructure to enter service.[10]
  • May 2–3 – United States Army Air Service Lieutenants John Arthur MacReady and Oakley G. Kelly complete the first non-stop flight across the continental United States, flying from Hempstead, New York, to San Diego, California, covering nearly 2,800 miles (4,509 km) in 27 hours in a Fokker T-2 at an average speed of over 100 mph (161 km/hr).[11]
  • May 3 – The Sikorsky Aero Engineering Corporation is formed by Igor Sikorsky at a Long Island chicken farm.
  • May 10 – Brazil establishes a School of Naval Aviation in Rio de Janeiro near Galeão beach on Governador Island. Rio de Janeiro–Galeão International Airport eventually will be constructed on the site.
  • May 14 – A Farman F.60 Goliath operated by Air Union on a flight from Paris-Le Bourget Airport outside Paris, France, to Croydon Airport in London, England, loses a wing in flight, crashes near Monsures, France, and is destroyed by fire. All six people on board die.[12]
  • May 21 – A Curtiss bomber and two Curtiss scout aircraft of the Argentine Navy make a flight of just under 500 miles (805 km) along the coast of Argentina from Puerto Militar to Buenos Aires. It is a significant step forward in the development of Argentine aviation.[13]
  • May 23 – The Belgian airline SABENA is formed, adding new European routes to SNETA's routes in Belgian Congo that it takes over.
  • May 29 – Reuben Fleet founds Consolidated Aircraft Corporation.[14][15]

June

July

  • Twenty-one aircraft compete in the Grand Prix de Motoaviette – a competition at Buc, Yvelines, France, open to any aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight of less than 250 kilograms (551 pounds), offering a 125,000 FF prize for the fastest flight of 30 laps around a 10-kilometer (6.21-mile) course. Lucien Coupet wins in a Salmson 3 Ad-powered Farman Aviette, covering 310 kilometers (192.5 miles) in 4 hours 37 minutes 19 seconds.

August

  • Personnel from the aircraft carrier USS Langley (CV-1) help to install a TS-1 floatplane fighter on the foredeck of the destroyer USS Charles Ausburn (DD-294) at Norfolk, Virginia, as the United States Navy begins to experiment with the operation of seaplanes from destroyers. The TS-1 flies successfully, but its presence interferes with Charles Ausburn's routine too much, and the idea is dropped.[17]
  • August 6
    • The eighth annual Aerial Derby is held, sponsored by the Royal Aero Club. Thirteen participants fly over a 99.5-mile (160-kilometer) circuit beginning and ending at Croydon Airport in London with control points at Brooklands, Hertford, and West Thurrock; the aircraft fly the circuit twice. L. L. Carter is the overall winner, completing the course in a Gloster Mars at an average speed of 192.4 mph (309.6 km/h) in 1 hour 2 minutes 23 seconds; H. A. Hammersley wins the handicap competition in an Avro Viper with a time of 1 hour 49 minutes 56 seconds at an average speed of 109.5 mph (176.2 km/h) with a handicap of 51 minutes 38 seconds. It is the last Aerial Derby; plans for another one in 1924 will be cancelled due to a lack of high-speed entrants, and later talk of reviving the event comes to nothing.
    • The third annual Air League Challenge Cup race is held as part of the Aerial Derby programme at Croydon Airport in London. The team relay race format of previous races is dropped; instead, the 16 competitors – all Royal Air Force pilots – compete individually, each flying a Bristol F.2B Fighter fitted with a 275-horsepower (205-kilowatt) Rolls-Royce Falcon engine over a 100-mile (161-kilometer) triangular course. Captain Horace Scott Shield, representing RAF Eastchurch, wins the race.[18][19]
  • August 21 – The first electric airway beacons start appearing at airfields in the United States to assist in night flying operations.
  • August 27 – A Farman F.60 Goliath operated by Air Union on a scheduled passenger flight from Berck-sur-Mer Airport in Berck-sur-Mer, France, to Croydon Airport in London, England, makes an unscheduled landing at Lympne, England, for repairs to its overheating left engine. After it continues its flight to Croydon, its right engine fails. Its pilot attempts a forced landing on East Malling Heath, but goes into a spin and crashes on final approach when passengers misunderstand an instruction for some of them to move towards the rear of the aircraft, affecting the Goliath's center of gravity. One passenger dies, but the other 10 passengers and both crew members survive.[20]
  • August 28 – United States Army Air Service Lieutenant John Richter and Lowell Smith establish a new endurance record of 37 hours 15 minutes in an Airco DH.4, covering 3,293 miles (5,299 km). They are refueled fifteen times during the flight.

September

October

  • October 6
    • Curtiss R2Cs win first and second place in the Pulitzer Trophy Race, the winning aircraft setting a new airspeed record of 243.6 mph (392 km/h).
    • Czech Airlines is founded by the government of Czechoslovakia as CSA Československé státní aerolinie ("Czechoslovak State Airlines"), commencing operations on October 29 with a Prague Kbely–Bratislava flight.[25]
  • October 8–13 – The Daily Mail sponsors the Motor Glider Competition at Lympne Aerodrome in Lympne, England, the first of the three light airplane trials held there. The contest rewards the most economical aircraft as well as the highest speed, highest altitude, and greatest endurance. Bert Hinkler is among the prize-winners. Record-setting French pilot Alexis Maneyrol dies in the crash of his Peyret Monoplane on the final day.[26][27]
  • October 10 – The United States Navy's first U.S.-built rigid airship, ZR-1. is christened and commissioned and receives her name: USS Shenandoah (ZR-1).[21]
  • October 30 – Flying the Nieuport-Delage NiD 40R, the French pilot Joseph Sadi-Lecointe sets a new world altitude record of 11,145 meters (36,565 feet). The record will stand until 1927.[22]

November

  • November 1 – The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company buys the rights to manufacture Luftschiffbau Zeppelin dirigibles in the United States.[28]
  • November 2 – Flying a Curtiss R2C-1, U.S. Navy Lieutenant H. J. Rowe sets a new world airspeed record of 259.16 mph (417.07 km/h).
  • November 4 – Flying a Curtiss R2C-1, U.S. Navy Lieutenant Alford J. Williams sets a new world airspeed record of 266.6 mph (429.02 km/h).[29]
  • November 18 – During an air show at Kelly Field, Texas, the first aerial refueling-related fatality in history occurs when the fuel hose becomes entangled in the right wings of both the refueler and the receiver aircraft. The United States Army Air Service pilot of the refueler, Lieutenant P. T. Wagner, dies in the ensuing crash of DH-4B 23-444.[30]

December

  • December 21 – The French dirigible Dixmude explodes over the Mediterranean Sea during a flight from Cuers-Pierrefeu, France, to French Algeria after being struck by lightning. Her entire crew of 52 perishes.[31]

First flights

January

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

Entered service

Notes

  1. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 202.
  2. Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 186.
  3. Daniel, Clifton, Chronicle of the 20th Century, Mount Kisco, New York: Chronicle Publications, 1987, ISBN 0-942191-01-3, p. 298.
  4. Aviation Safety Network: Accident Description
  5. Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9, p. 85.
  6. Daniel, Clifton, Chronicle of the 20th Century, Mount Kisco, New York: Chronicle Publications, 1987, ISBN 0-942191-01-3, p. 300.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Scheina, Robert L., Latin America: A Naval History 1810-1987, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1987, ISBN 0-87021-295-8, p. 199.
  8. Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9, p. 90.
  9. Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917-1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 10.
  10. Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917-1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 215.
  11. Daniel, Clifton, Chronicle of the 20th Century, Mount Kisco, New York: Chronicle Publications, 1987, ISBN 0-942191-01-3, p. 302.
  12. Aviation Safety Network: Accident Description
  13. Scheina, Robert L., Latin America: A Naval History 1810-1987, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1987, ISBN 0-87021-295-8, p. 193-194.
  14. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 94.
  15. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission: Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation.
  16. Crosby, Francis, The Complete Guide to Fighters & Bombers of the World: An Illustrated History of the World's Greatest Military Aircraft, From the Pioneering Days of Air Fighting in World War I Through the Jet Fighters and Stealth Bombers of the Present Day, London: Hermes House, 2006, ISBN 9781846810008, p. 46.
  17. Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9, p. 122.
  18. afleetingpeace.org The Air League Challenge Cup
  19. afleetingpeace.org Air League Challenge Cup - 1921
  20. Aviation Safety Network: Accident Description
  21. 21.0 21.1 Hayward, John T. (August 1978). "Comment and Discussion". 
  22. 22.0 22.1 Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 688.
  23. Daniel, Clifton, Chronicle of the 20th Century, Mount Kisco, New York: Chronicle Publications, 1987, ISBN 0-942191-01-3, p. 304.
  24. http://www.aviationarchaeology.com/src/1940sB4/1923.htm
  25. "History". CSA Czech Airlines. 2012. http://www.csa.cz/en/portal/quicklinks/about-us/history.htm. Retrieved 2016-08-04. 
  26. The Shuttleworth Aircraft Collection
  27. Hastingleigh, Kent: Those Magnificent Men in their Flying Machines: 1923
  28. Daniel, Clifton, Chronicle of the 20th Century, Mount Kisco, New York: Chronicle Publications, 1987, ISBN 0-942191-01-3, p. 306.
  29. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 0-517-56588-9, p. 123.
  30. aviationarchaeology.com 1923 US Army Air Service Accident Reports
  31. http://www.avalanchepress.com/FrenchAirship.php
  32. Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 49.
  33. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 181.
  34. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 126.
  35. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 68.
  36. Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 63.
  37. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 0-517-56588-9, p. 461.
  38. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 123.

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