Military Wiki
Advertisement
Years in aviation: 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921
Centuries: 19th century · 20th century · 21st century
Decades: 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s
Years: 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921

This is a list of aviation-related events from 1918:

Events[]

January[]

  • Gunner-observer Captain John H. Hedley is thrown from the cockpit of his Bristol F2B Fighter without a parachute during a dogfight when his pilot, Captain Reginald "Jimmy" Makepeace puts the plane into a steep dive. After he falls several hundred feet, Hedley and the aircraft come back together and he manages to grab the fighter's after fuselage and crawl back into hs cockpit unharmed.[5]
  • January 5 – A rapid series of explosions and quickly spreading fires at the Imperial German Navy airship base at Tondern destroys four hangars and five airships in five minutes, killing four civilian workers and 10 naval personnel and injuring 134 naval personnel.[6]
  • January 9 – In a dogfight over Moorslede, Belgium, with three Royal Flying Corps aircraft – an RE.8 of No. 21 Squadron and two SE.5as of No. 60 Squadron – the Albatros D.Va of German ace Max Ritter von Müller is shot down in flames. Von Müller jumps to his death to escape the fire. Von Müller's 36 victories will make him the 15th-highest-scoring German ace and high-scoring Bavarian ace of World War I.[7]
  • January 12 – A decree issued by the Council of Peoples' Commissars of the Republic puts all Russian aircraft manufacturing companies under state control.[8]
  • January 25 – Second Lieutenant Carl Mather is killed in an aircraft collision at Ellington Field, Texas. The future Mather Air Force Base, later Sacramento Mather Airport, at Rancho Cordova, California, will be named for him.

February[]

March[]

April[]

May[]

  • May 10 – The German Navy Zeppelin L 62 explodes, breaks in half, and crashes in flames over the North Sea with the loss of all hands under mysterious circumstances. The German Naval Airship Service blames her loss on an accident, while the Royal Air Force claims that one of its Felixstowe F.2a flying boats shot her down.[19]
  • May 13 – The United States issues its first air mail stamps to the public. They bear a picture depicting a Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny".[20]
  • May 15 - The first regular United States air mail service commences, between New York and Washington, D.C. The first flight is made by Lieutenant Geoffrey Boyle in a Curtiss JN-4H.
  • May 16 - The Imperial German Navy recommissions the light cruiser Stuttgart after her conversion into a seaplane carrier. She is the only German seagoing aviation ship capable of working with the fleet commissioned during either World War I or World War II.[21]
  • May 19
    • Raoul Lufbery, commander of the 94th (Hat in the Ring) Aero Squadron and second highest scoring American ace with 17 victories, is killed in air combat.
    • U.S. Army Major Harold M. Clark Jr. and Sergeant Robert P. Gay make the first interisland flight in Hawaii, flying from Fort Kamehameha on Oahu to Maui. They continue on to the island of Hawaii the same day, where they crash on the slopes of Mauna Kea. Uninjured, they wander on foot for a week before finding help.[22]
  • May 20 - German bombs fall on London for the last time in World War I. During their one-year-long heavier-than-air bombing campaign against England, the Germans have dropped 84,745 kg (186,830 lbs) of bombs and lost 61 bombers.[23]
  • May 21 - President Woodrow Wilson creates a Bureau of Aircraft Production responsible for aeronautical equipment.[24]
  • May 24
  • May 31 - Douglas Campbell scores his fifth victory, becoming the first American pilot to be become an ace while flying for an American-trained unit.

June[]

  • From the basis of VIII Brigade, the Royal Air Force forms the Independent Force, tasked to mount a strategic bombing campaign against Germany "independently" of the ground and sea campaigns the Allies have been waging since 1914.[26]
  • A detachment of American bomber pilots is stationed in Italy to strike at Austria-Hungary.
  • The United States Marine Corps consolidates its aviation forces at the Marine Flying Field at Miami, to form the First Marine Aviation Force. Composed of four squadrons, the force will deploy to France for combat.[27]
  • Early June – The Royal Navy destroyer HMS Vectis conducts towing trials with the NS-class blimp N.S.3 to see if an airship which runs out of fuel or suffers a mechanical breakdown can be towed at speed by a ship at sea. Vectis reaches nearly 20 knots with N.S.3 in tow during successful initial trials, but N.S.3 touches down on the sea on the final run.[28]
  • June 1 – The Australian ace Lieutenant Colonel Roderic Dallas, flying an SE.5a, is shot down and killed over Liévin, France, by the German ace Leutnant Johannes Werner in a Fokker Dr.I as Werner's sixth victory. Dallas's victory total of 51 will make him the highest-scoring Australian ace of World War I.[29]
  • June 4 – The first flight of the first all-metal stressed-skin fighter, the Dornier-Zeppelin D.I, takes place.[30]
  • June 5 – Douglas Campbell, the first American to become an ace while flying for an American-trained unit, scores his sixth and final victory. Badly wounded during the flight, he sees no further combat.
  • June 19 – Italy's highest-scoring ace, Maggiore (Major) Francesco Baracca, is killed by Austro-Hungarian ground fire. He had claimed 34 victories.
  • June 24
    • The first scheduled Canadian airmail flight is made, between Montreal and Toronto.
    • The Royal Air Force employs its new 1,650-lb (748-kg) bomb in combat for the first time when a Handley Page O/400 of No. 216 Squadron drops one on Middelkerke, Belgium.

July[]

  • During the month, the American writer William Faulkner arrives in Canada for flight training with the Royal Air Force. He still is in training there when the World War I ends, after which he returns to the United States.[31]
  • July 9 – British ace James McCudden is killed when his aircraft crashes on take-off at Auxi-le-Château, France. He has 57 victories at the time of his death; enough to make him the seventh-highest-scoring ace of World War I.
  • July 14 – Flying a Nieuport 28, the youngest son of former U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, Second Lieutenant Quentin Roosevelt – serving as a fighter pilot in the United States Army Air Service's 95th Aero Squadron – is shot down and killed by a German fighter over Chamery, France.
  • July 19 – Seven Royal Air Force Sopwith 2F.1 Camel fighters from the Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Furious attack the Imperial German Navy airship base at Tondern, destroying the Zeppelins L 54 and L 60. It is history's first air attack by conventional land planes launching from an aircraft carrier's flight deck and the most successful attack by shipboard aircraft of World War I.[32][33] All seven Camels are lost: one crashes into the sea in bad weather, killing its pilot; two ditch in the sea, and their pilots are rescued by the British naval force escorting Furious; and four land in neutral Denmark, where they and their pilots are interned.[34] One of the pilots recovered from the sea – Captain William F. Dickson, rescued by the destroyer HMS Violent[35] – is a future Marshal of the Royal Air Force, Chief of the Air Staff, and Chief of the Defence Staff.
  • July 21 – Two United States Navy seaplanes from Naval Air Station Chatham, Chatham, Massachusetts, attack a surfaced German submarine that is firing at a tug and three barges off Cape Cod, Massachusetts. One bomb strikes the submarine, but is a dud.[36]
  • July 26 – Major Edward "Mick" Mannock, the United Kingdom's highest scoring ace of the war, is shot down by German ground fire and killed. He traditionally is credited with 73 victories as the highest-scoring British ace of World War I, but he never claimed that many and his actual score may have been 61.
  • July 30
    • Lieutenant Frank Linke-Crawford, the fourth-highest-scoring Austro-Hungarian ace, is shot down and killed in aerial combat. He had scored 27 victories.
    • The United States Marine Corps's 1st Marine Aviation Force, minus one of its four squadrons, arrives at Brest, France, to become the first U.S. Marine Corps aviation force to serve in combat. Delays in transportation and the arrival of equipment will prevent it from operating until mid-October.[37]
  • July 31
    • An aircraft takes off from platform installed on a towed lighter for the first time, when Royal Air Force Lieutenant Stewart Culley takes off in a Sopwith Camel from a lighter towed behind a British warship.[38][39]
    • A Royal Air Force bombing raid over Germany by 12 Airco DH.9s suffers the loss of 10 aircraft shot down.[40]

August[]

  • A large petroleum barge on the Volga River in Russia is equipped with a flight deck and elevators (lifts) to carry up to nine Grigorovich M.9 flying boats and three Nieuport fighters. Named Kommuna and towed by a sidewheel paddle tug, she and her aircraft actively support operations of the Bolshevik Volga River Flotilla during the Russian Civil War.[41]
  • August 1
    • In the North Russia Campaign during the Russian Civil War, probably the first fully combined air, sea, and land military operation in history takes place, as Fairey Campania seaplanes from the Royal Navy seaplane carrier HMS Nairana join Allied ground forces and ships in driving Bolsheviks out of their fortifications on Modyugski Island at the mouth of the Northern Dvina River in Russia, then scout ahead of the Allied force as it proceeds up the channel to Arkhangelsk. The appearance of one of the Campanias over Arkhangelsk induces the Bolshevik leaders there to panic and flee.[42]
    • French ace Lieutenant Gabriel Guérin is killed in action. His 23 victories will tie him with Lieutenant René Dorme for ninth-highest-scoring French ace of World War I.[43]
  • August 5–6 (overnight) – Five Imperial German Navy Zeppelins attempt to bomb the United Kingdom in the fourth and final such raid of 1918. All of their bombs fall through clouds into the North Sea, and the commander of the Naval Airship Division, Fregattenkapitän Peter Strasser, is killed in action when a Royal Air Force Airco DH.4 piloted by Major Egbert Cadbury and crewed by Captain Robert Leckie shoots down in flames the Zeppelin in which he is flying as an observer, L70, over the coast of England.[44][45] After Strasser's death, Germany attempts no more airship raids against the United Kingdom. During their 1915-1918 bombing campaign, German airships have made 208 raids against England, dropped 5,907 bombs, killed 528 people, and injured 1,156.[46]
  • August 9 – Eight Italian Ansaldo SVA biplanes of the 87 Squadriglia "Serenimissa", led by Gabriele d'Annunzio, fly over Vienna for 30 minutes without interference from Austro-Hungarian forces, taking photographs and dropping leaflets before returning to base without loss.[47]
  • August 10
    • During a dogfight, the Fokker D.VII fighter of the German fighter ace Oberleutnant Erich Löwenhardt collides with another D.VII flown by Leutnant Alfred Wenz near Chaulnes, France. Both men bail out; Wenz survives, but Loewenhardt's parachute fails and he falls to his death from 12,000 feet (3,658 meters). Loewenhardt's score of 53 kills will make him the third-highest-scoring German ace of World War I.[7]
    • After shooting down two enemy aircraft earlier in the day, the German ace Rudolf Berthold collides with an enemy plane during a dogfight with Sopwith Camels. His Fokker D.VII crashes into a house, injuring him; although he survives, he never flies another combat mission.[48] His total of 44 kills will make him the sixth-highest-scoring German ace of World War I.[49]
  • August 11
    • After taking off in a Sopwith Camel from a barge towed behind the destroyer HMS Redoubt, Royal Air Force Flight Sub-Lieutenant Stuart Culley shoots down the Imperial German Navy Zeppelin L 53, which had been flying a scouting mission over the North Sea. It is the first successful interception of an enemy aircraft by a shipborne fighter. German airships never conduct another scouting mission. L 53's sole survivor is a crewman who parachutes from the Zeppelin at an altitude of 19,000 feet (5,791 m), almost certainly a record at the time.[50] L 53 is the last German airship destroyed during World War I.
    • The first use of a parachute from an airplane in combat occurs when a German pilot escapes his burning Pfalz D.III after being attacked by a pilot from the Royal Air Force's No. 19 Squadron.
  • August 14 – The French ace René Fonck shoots down three German aircraft in ten seconds in a head-on attack. All three crash within 100 meters (328 feet) of one another near Roye,disambiguation needed France.[51]
  • August 19 – A U.S. Navy Curtiss 18-T-1 triplane sets a new world speed record of 163 mph (232.32 km/hr).[52]
  • August 22 – Lieutenant Frigyes Hefty of the Austro-Hungarian Air Corps successfully parachutes from his burning fighter after a dogfight with Italian aircraft. He is the first person to survive a combat parachute jump.[53]
  • August 27 – The first Director of the United States Army Air Service is appointed.[18]

September[]

  • Known as "Black September;" during the month the Allies lose 560 aircraft, of which 87 are American.
  • The Royal Air Force begins to issue parachutes to its squadrons for the first time.[13]
  • September 7 – The U.S. Marine Corps's 1st Marine Aviation Force, building up in the Calais-Dunkirk area of France to operate as an element of the U.S. Navy's Northern Bombing Group, takes delivery of its first bomber.[37]
  • September 12 – 627 French and 611 American fighters are brought together for the Battle of Saint-Mihiel. At the time, it is the largest force of aircraft assembled for a single operation.
  • September 14 – The British aircraft carrier Argus is completed. She is the world's first aircraft carrier with an unobstructed flight deck from stem to stern.[10][54]
  • September 18
  • September 24 – Lieutenant David Ingalls claims his fifth victory, to become the first U.S. Navy ace in history and the only one of World War I.
  • September 27 – During a dogfight with SE.5as of No. 32 Squadron, Royal Air Force, the Fokker D.VII fighter of the German ace Leutnant Fritz Rumey either collides with the SE.5a of Captain George Lawson or is shot down by Lieutenant Frank Hale. Rumey parachutes from his D.VII at 1,000 feet (305 meters) but falls to his death when his parachute fails. His 45 kills will make him the fifth-highest-scoring German ace of World War I.[7]
  • September 28 – Flying an Airco DH.9 with the Royal Air Force's No. 218 Squadron, U.S. Marine Corps First Lieutenant Everett R. Brewer (pilot) and Gunnery Sergeant Harry B. Wershiner (observer) become the first U.S. Marine Corps personnel to shoot down an enemy plane in aerial combat. They both are badly wounded during the engagement.[55]
  • September 29
    • United States Army Air Service Second Lieutenant Frank Luke, the second-highest-scoring American ace of World War I with 18 victories, is killed in action.
    • Second Lieutenant Chapin Barr becomes the first U.S. Marine Corps pilot to die in aerial combat.[55]

October[]

  • October 5 – The famous French pilot Lieutenant Roland Garros, who in 1915 had become the first man to shoot down another aircraft by firing a machine gun through a tractor propeller, is shot down and killed in combat near Vouziers, France. He has four victories at the time of his death.
  • October 11 – The Imperial German Navy's air command proposes that merchant ships be converted into Germany's first aircraft carriers with flight decks.[56]
  • October 12 – The Imperial German Navy's Naval Airship Division flies its last combat mission.[57]
  • October 14
    • Baron Willy Coppens, highest scoring Belgian ace, is heavily wounded, ending his combat career. He had scored 37 victories, 34 of which were observation balloons.
    • The first all-U.S. Marine Corps air combat action in history takes place, when five Airco DH.4s and three Airco DH.9s bomb Pitthem, Belgium.[55] On the return flight, German Fokker D.VII and Pfalz D.III fighters attack the bombers.[58] Second Lieutenant Ralph Talbot (pilot) and Gunnery Sergeant Robert Guy Robinson (gunner) become separated from the formation after their DH.4 loses power, then encounter 12 German fighters. Although Robinson is terribly wounded during the resulting dogfight, they hold off the Germans and Talbot lands at a Belgian hospital, where Robinson is treated. For this action, they will become the first U.S. Marine Corps aviators to receive the Medal of Honor during a ceremony on November 11, 1920.[55][59]
  • October 25 – U.S. Marine Corps Second Lieutenant Ralph Talbot dies in a crash during a test flight 11 days after the action for which he will receive a posthumous Medal of Honor in 1920.[55]
  • October 28 – French ace Lieutenant Michel Coiffard is gravely wounded during a dogfight with German Fokker D.VII fighters. He flies back to base, where he dies of his wounds. His 34 kills will make him the sixth-highest scoring French ace of World War I.[43]
  • October 29 – The Danish airline Det Danske Luftfartselskab, the oldest airline that still exists, is founded
  • October 30 – Flying a SPAD XIII fighter, Eddie Rickenbacker shoots down a German observation balloon near Remonville, France, for his 26th and final aerial victory. His 26 victories (22 aircraft and four balloons) will make him the top-scoring American ace of World War I.

November[]

December[]

  • December 12
    • Captain R. M. Smith, Brigadier General A. E. Borton, and Major General W. Salmond set out in a Handley Page O/400 from Heliopolis to Karachi, to survey a route for airmail to India.
    • An airplane is launched from an airship for the first time, when the U.S. Navy blimp C.1 drops a Curtiss JN-4 into flight over Fort Tilden, New York.[61]
  • December 13 – Major A. S. C. MacLaren and Captain Robert Halley set out on the first England-India flight, in a Handley Page V/1500

First flights[]

January[]

February[]

March[]

April[]

May[]

June[]

July[]

August[]

September[]

October[]

November[]

Entered service[]

April[]

June[]

August[]

References[]

  1. Peattie, Mark R., Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power 1909-1941, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2001, ISBN 1-55750-432-6, p. 15.
  2. Scheina, Robert L., Latin America: A Naval History 1810-1987, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1987, ISBN 0-87021-295-8, p. 199.
  3. Peattie, Mark R., Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power 1909-1941, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2001, ISBN 1-55750-432-6, p. 16.
  4. David, Donald, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Nobles Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 185.
  5. Wilkinson, Stephan, "Amazing But True Stories," Aviation History, May 2014, p. 33.
  6. Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN number, pp. 237-238.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Franks, Norman, Aircraft Versus Aircraft: The Illustrated Story of Fighter Pilot Combat From 1914 to the Present Day, London: Grub Street, 1998, ISBN 1-902304-04-7, p. 63.
  8. Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 41.
  9. Angelucci, Enzo, with Peter Bowers, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1985, ISBN 0-517-56588-9, pp. 19.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917-1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 215.
  11. Kilduff, Peter, The Red Baron: Beyond the Legend, London: Cassell, 1994, ISBN 0-304-35207-1, pp. 16-17.
  12. Hastings, Max, Bomber Command: Churchill's Epic Campaign - The Inside Story of the RAF's Valiant Attempt to End the War, New York: Simon & Schuster Inc., 1987, ISBN 0-671-68070-6, p. 39.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Guttman, John, "Heinecke Parachute: A Leap of Faith For German World War I Airmen," Military History, May 2012, p. 23.
  14. Thetford, Owen, British Naval Aircraft Since 1912, Sixth Edition, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-076-2, pp. 14-15.
  15. Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN number, p. 238.
  16. Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN number, p. 236.
  17. Infoplease: Famous Firsts in Aviation
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Maurer, Maurer, ed (1983) [1961]. Air Force Combat Units of World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. p. 4. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979. http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/af_combat_units_wwii.pdf. 
  19. Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN number, pp. 239-240.
  20. Anonymous, "Today in History," The Washington Post Express, May 13, 2013, p. 26.
  21. Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9, p. 27.
  22. Aviation Hawaii: 1879-1919 Chronology of Aviation in Hawaii
  23. Chant, Chris, The World's Great Bombers, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 2000, ISBN 0-7607-2012-6, p. 26.
  24. Maurer, pp. 3-4.
  25. Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 36.
  26. Frankland, Noble, Bomber Offensive: The Devastation of Europe, New York: Ballantine Books Inc., 1970, p. 11.
  27. 27.0 27.1 Butler, Glen, Colonel, USMC, "That Other Air Service Centennial," Naval History, June 2012, p. 56.
  28. Turpin, Brian J., North Sea Three
  29. Franks, Norman, Aircraft vs. Aircraft: The Illustrated Story of Fighter Pilot Combat From 1914 to the Present Day, London: Grub Street, 1998, ISBN 1-902304-04-7, pp. 38, 62.
  30. *Grosz, Peter (1998). Dornier D.I Windsock Mini datafile # 12. Hertfordshire, UK: Albatros Publications. p. 8. ISBN 9780948414923. 
  31. Caverlee, William, "Flyboy Faulkner", Aviation History, January 2011, p. 19.
  32. Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9, p. 61.
  33. Thetford, Owen, British Naval Aircraft Since 1912, Sixth Edition, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-076-2, p. 12.
  34. Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN number, pp. 241-242.
  35. tondernraid.com The Story of the Raid on Tondern, 19th July 1918
  36. A Chronological History of Coast Guard Aviation: The Early Years, 1915-1938.
  37. 37.0 37.1 Knapp, Walter, "The Marines Take Wing," Aviation History, May 2012, p. 52.
  38. Thetford, Owen, British Naval Aircraft Since 1912, Sixth Edition, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-076-2, p. 15.
  39. The date of this event is placed on 1 August 1918 in Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters: The Fascinating Story of the Great Zeppelin Raids of the First World War, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, p.251.
  40. Thetford, Owen, British Naval Aircraft Since 1912, Sixth Edition, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-076-2, p. 97.
  41. Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9, p. 102.
  42. Dobson, Christopher, and John Miller, The Day They Almost Bombed Moscow: The Allied War in Russia, 1918-1920, New York: Atheneum, 1986, no ISBN number, pp. 63-64.
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 Franks, Norman, Aircraft Versus Aircraft: The Illustrated Story of Fighter Pilot Combat From 1914 to the Present Day, London: Grub Street, 1998, ISBN 1-902304-04-7, p. 62.
  44. Cross, Wilbur, Zeppelins of World War I, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1991, ISBN 1-56619-390-7, pp. 175-179.
  45. Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, pp. 245-248.
  46. Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, p. 8.
  47. Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 51.
  48. firstworldwar.com Who's Who: Rudolf Berthold
  49. Franks, Norman, Aircraft vs. Aircraft: The Illustrated Story of Fighter Pilot Combat From 1914 to the Present Day, London: Grub Street, 1998, ISBN 1-902304-04-7, pp. 58, 63.
  50. Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, p. 251.
  51. Franks, Norman, Aircraft vs. Aircraft: The Illustrated Story of Fighter Pilot Combat From 1914 to the Present Day, London: Grub Street, 1998, ISBN 1-902304-04-7, pp. 56, 58.
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 52.3 Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 114.
  53. Crosby, Francis, The Complete Guide to Fighters & Bombers of the World: An Illustrated History of the World's Greatest Military Aircraft, From the Pioneering Days of Air Fighting in World War I Through the Jet Fighters and Stealth Bombers of the Present Day, London: Hermes House, 2006, ISBN 9781846810008, p. 25.
  54. Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9, pp. 66, 70.
  55. 55.0 55.1 55.2 55.3 55.4 Knapp, Walter, "The Marines Take Wing," Aviation History, May 2012, p. 53.
  56. Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9, p. 28.
  57. Phythyon, John R., Jr., Great War at Sea: Zeppelins, Virginia Beach, Virginia: Avalanche Press, Inc., 2007, p. 14.
  58. Knapp, Walter, "The Marines Take Wing", Aviation History, May 2012, p. 50.
  59. Borch, Fred L., and Robert E. Dorr, "Bravery Over Belgium," Military History, March 2012, p. 17.
  60. Franks, Norman, Aircraft vs. Aircraft: The Illustrated Story of Fighter Pilot Combat From 1914 to the Present Day, London: Grub Street, 1998, ISBN 1-902304-04-7, p. 63.
  61. Clark, Basil, The History of Airships, New York: St Martin's Press, 1961, Library of Congress 64-12336, p. 147.
  62. 62.0 62.1 Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 0-517-56588-9, p. 378.
  63. Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 186.
  64. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 0-517-56588-9, p. 427.
  65. 65.0 65.1 Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 93.
  66. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 0-517-56588-9, p. 430.
  67. Swanborough, Gordon, and Peter M. Bowers, United States Navy Aircraft Since 1911, London: Putnam, 1976, ISBN 0-370-10054-9, p. 424.
  68. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 116.
  69. Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 77.
  70. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 117.
  71. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 293.
  72. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 195, claims that this flight was in "mid-August 1918."
  73. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 196.
  74. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 291.
  75. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 0-517-56588-9, p. 420.
  76. Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 39.
  77. Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 40.

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).
Advertisement