Military Wiki
Advertisement
1900 Amur anti-Chinese Pogroms
Gengzi Russian Disaster
Part of Siege of the International Legations
海兰泡惨案.jpg
In the Blagoveshchensk massacres, a Chinese civilian was tied for execution.
DateJuly 4–8, 1900 (Old Style)
LocationBlagoveshchensk and Sixty-Four Villages East of the River
Result more than 3,000 Chinese civilians killed; loss of residency for Chinese living in the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River
Territorial
changes
Qing dynasty loses control over Sixty-Four Villages East of the River
Belligerents
 Russian Empire Template:QING-1889
Yihetuan flag.png Boxer Rebellion
Commanders and leaders
Russian Empire Nicholas II of Russia
Russian Empire Aleksey Kuropatkin
Russian Empire ru (Nikolay Grodekov)
Qing dynasty Shoushan (Shoushan (Qing dynasty))
Qing dynasty zh (Yang Fengxiang )
Qing dynasty Chong Kunshan
Qing dynasty Wang Liangchen
Strength
36,000 Russian soldiers and Cossacks 22,000 civilians
Casualties and losses
995 killed
1,440 wounded
198 officials died[1]


The 1900 Amur anti-Chinese Pogroms were a series of killings and reprisals of Chinese residents of Blagoveshchensk and in the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River in the Amur region during the same time as the spread of the Boxer Rebellion throughout China by Russian authorities, ultimately resulting in thousands deaths, the loss of residency for Chinese living in the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River, and increased Russian control over the region. The Russian justification for the pogroms were attacks made on Russian infrastructure outside Blagoveshchensk by Chinese Boxers, which was then responded to by Russian force. The pogroms themselves occurred between 4–8 July (Old Style, O.S.; 17–21, New Style or N.S.), 1900.

Name

The name for the killings and reprisals that occurred in Amur is not standardized, and has been referred to by different names over time. The most common Chinese name for the pogroms is the Gengzi Russian Disaster (simplified Chinese: 庚子俄难; traditional Chinese: 庚子俄難; pinyin: Gēngzǐ é nán), but the two most major events in Blagoveshchensk and the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River are referred to as the Blagoveshchensk Massacre (simplified Chinese: 海兰泡惨案; traditional Chinese: 海蘭泡慘案; pinyin: Hǎilánpào cǎn'àn) and the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River Massacre (simplified Chinese: 江东六十四屯惨案; traditional Chinese: 江東六十四屯慘案; pinyin: Jiāngdōng liùshísì tún cǎn'àn) respectively.[2]

The Russian name of the pogroms in Blagoveshchensk is referred to as the Chinese Pogrom in Blagoveshchensk (Russian: Китайский погром в Благовещенске), while the killings and reprisals that took place in the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River are referred to as the Battle on the Amur (Russian: Бои на Амуре).[3]

Background

Blagoveshchensk was founded on the territory ceded to Russia by Treaty of Aigun in 1858.

Process

K.N. Gribskiy's proclamation

The introduction to K.N. Gribskiy's proclamation regarding his intended punishment of Chinese living in Blagoveshchensk and the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River

Blagoveshchensk


Sixty-Four Villages East of the River

Lieutenant-General Konstantin Nikolaevich Gribskiy ordered the expulsion of all Qing subjects who remained north of the river.[4] This included the residents of the villages, and Chinese traders and workers who lived in Blagoveshchensk proper, where they numbered anywhere between one-sixth and one-half of the local population of 30,000.[4][5] They were taken by the local police and driven into the river to be drowned. Those who could swim were shot by the Russian forces.[6]

Legacy

Andrew Higgins of The New York Times wrote that Chinese and Russian officials tended to not bring up the incidents during periods of good China-Russia relations or China-Soviet Union relations, while the incident was brought up after the Sino-Soviet split with people still alive who had been in the programs being interviewed by Chinese officials. Higgins stated that in 2020 Chinese and Russian officials purposefully avoided dealing with the incident.[7]

References

  1. 孙蓉图; 徐希廉 (1974) (in zh). 《瑷珲县志》. Taipei: Cheng Wen Publishing Co., Ltd.. pp. 209–210. 
  2. Gao, Yongsheng; Li, Lingbao (March 2004). ""庚子俄难"时限的再界定与思考" (in zh). Xunke Country Local Records Office. pp. 35–36. http://xueshu.baidu.com/usercenter/paper/show?paperid=5dd5d6e12f952f6c34be343255d46dd8. 
  3. ""Боксерское" восстание в Китае в 1898 - 1901" (in ru). January 2000. http://www.hrono.ru/sobyt/1800sob/1898boks.php. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Paine, S.C.M. (1996). Imperial Rivals: China, Russia, and Their Disputed Frontier. Imperial Rivals: China, Russia, and Their Disputed Frontier. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-1-56324-724-8. https://books.google.com/books?id=zMrx5Rw5n0AC. Retrieved May 8, 2019. 
  5. Yan, Jiaqi (February 2014). "中俄邊界問題的十個事實──回應俄羅斯駐中國大使館公使銜參贊岡察洛夫等人文章 (Ten facts about the Sino-Russian border problem: In reply to the essays of Russian Minister-Counselor to China Sergey Goncharov and other people)". Chinese University of Hong Kong. http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/ics/21c/supplem/essay/0501021.htm. 
  6. Maxwell, Neville (June 2014). Iwashita, Akihiro. ed. Eager Eyes Fixed on Eurasia. 21st Century COE Program Slavic Eurasian Studies. Sapporo: Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido University. pp. 47–72. http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/coe21/publish/no16_2_ses/02_maxwell.pdf. Retrieved 2009-02-24. 
  7. Higgins, Andrew (2020-03-26). "On Russia-China Border, Selective Memory of Massacre Works for Both Sides". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/26/world/europe/russia-china-border.html. "When China embraced the Soviet Union as a close ally [...] have muffled them further." 

Further reading

  • Yang, Chuang; Gao, Fei; Feng (September 2006). "百年中俄关系 (A Century of China-Russia Relations)". Beijing: World Affairs Press. ISBN 7501228760.  (in Chinese)

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).
Advertisement