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18 July 2012 Damascus bombing
تفجير مجلس الأمن القومي
Part of the Battle of Damascus (2012) (during Syrian civil war)
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Location Rawda Square, Damascus, Syria
Coordinates 33°31′16.09″N 36°16′58.15″E / 33.5211361°N 36.2828194°E / 33.5211361; 36.2828194Coordinates: 33°31′16.09″N 36°16′58.15″E / 33.5211361°N 36.2828194°E / 33.5211361; 36.2828194
Date 18 July 2012 (2012-07-18)
Target Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and his Cabinet members[1]
Attack type
Assassination
Weapons Remotely detonated bomb[1][2]
Deaths At least 4[3][4][5][6]
Non-fatal injuries
At least 2[7][8]
Assailants Liwa Al-Islam and Free Syrian Army (both claimed responsibility)[9][10]


The 18 July 2012 Damascus bombing refers to the bombing of the National Security headquarters in Rawda Square, Damascus, killing and injuring a number of top military and security officials of Bashar al-Assad's government. Among the dead were the Syrian Defense Minister[3] and Deputy Defense Minister,[4] The incident occurred during the Syrian civil war, and is considered to be one of the most notorious events to affect the conflict. Syrian state-owned television reported that it was a suicide attack while the opposition claims it was a remotely detonated bomb.

Bombing

The attack, during a meeting of ministers and a number of heads of security agencies, resulted in the death of the Syrian Defense Minister General Dawoud Rajiha.[3] Also killed were Assef Shawkat, president Bashar al-Assad's brother-in-law and deputy defense minister, the assistant to the vice president General Hasan Turkmani,[5][11] and Hafez Makhlouf, head of investigations at the Syrian Intelligence Agency.[6] However, Hafez Makhlouf was also reported to be wounded.[12] The country's intelligence and national security chief[13] Hisham Ikhtiyar was seriously wounded.[14] There were conflicting reports on the fate of the Interior minister Mohammad al-Shaar with initial accounts stating that he had also been killed, but later state TV reported that he survived although wounded.[15] Additional reports stated that he was in stable condition.[16] Al-Shaar was reported dead later, according to Al Jazeera.[17] Mohammed Saeed Bekheitan, the national secretary of the Ba'ath Party, was also wounded in the bombing.[7] Press TV provided a conflicting report, indicating that Hisham Ikhityar had died in the bombing and that Mohammad al-Shaar had been wounded.[8] On 20 July 2012, the death of Hisham Ikhtiyar was confirmed by Syrian authorities.[18]

Victims

  • General Assef Shawkat – President Bashar al-Assad's brother-in-law and Deputy Defense Minister – confirmed dead.
  • General Dawoud Rajiha – Defense Minister – confirmed dead.
  • General Hasan Turkmani – Assistant to the Vice President Farouk al-Sharaa and former Defense Minister – confirmed dead.
  • General Hisham Ikhtiyar – Director of the National Security Bureau – confirmed dead.
  • General Maher al-Assad – President Bashar al-Assad's younger brother and the commander of the Republican Guard - wounded, reports of him losing a leg.[19][20]
  • Colonel Hafez Makhlouf – President Bashar al-Assad's cousin and head of investigations at the General Security Directorate – wounded
  • General Mohammad al-Shaar – Interior Minister – wounded
  • General Mohammed Saeed Bekheitan – Assistant National Secretary of the Ba'ath Party and former chief of the National Security Bureau - wounded

Perpetrators

The bomber was reportedly a bodyguard of one of the meeting's attendants.[21] The opposition meanwhile claimed that the cause of the explosion was not a suicide bomber, but that a rebel insider planted bombs inside the building and detonated it remotely from a distant location.[2] The Islamist Liwa al Islam ("The Brigade of Islam")[9] and the Free Syrian Army both claimed responsibility for the bombing.[10] Louay al-Mokdad, the Free Syrian Army’s logistical coordinator, claimed that the attack was perpetrated by a group of Free Syrian Army members in coordination with drivers and bodyguards working for Assad’s high-ranking officials.[1] Others, such as The Independent's chief Middle East correspondent Robert Fisk, speculated that the bombing was carried out by forces (Saudi Arabia, Qatar, or an organization) outside the country.[22]

It was further stated that the two explosive devices, one made of 25 pounds of TNT, and the other a smaller C-4 plastic-explosive device, had been put in the room days before the meeting by a person working for Hisham Ikhtiyar.[1]

Reaction

Domestic

Although there were no statements from President Assad himself, Syrian TV said after the attack that a decree from him named Gen. Fahd Jassem al-Freij, who used to be the army chief of staff, as the new defense minister.[23] Syrian state television said foreign-backed terrorists had carried out the attack. The country's armed forces said in a statement that Syria was "determined to confront all forms of terrorism and chop off any hand that harms national security".[24]

On 19 July 2012, Syrian state television broadcast images of President Assad at the Presidential Palace in Damascus, cutting short speculation fueled by his silence following the attack against his inner circle the previous day. In the images broadcast by the television, Assad was seen in blue suit, receiving the new defense minister, Fahd Jassem al-Freij, after the swearing ceremony.[25][26] According to Israeli newspaper Haaretz, the state TV announcement appeared aimed at sending the message that Assad is alive, well and still firmly in charge. It said Assad wished the new defense minister good luck but it did not say where the swearing-in took place. Nor did it show any photos or video of the ceremony, as it usually would.[27]

International

  •  Iran – The Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemned the bombing, adding that "the only way of resolving the current crisis in Syria is through talks."[28]
  •  Israel – Defense Minister Ehud Barak urgently summoned intelligence and security officials to discuss possible implications of the rapidly deteriorating situation in Syria. They included Chief of the General Staff of the IDF Lt. Gen. Benny Gantz and heads of the Northern Command, Military Intelligence Department, the Planning Directorate and the various IDF branches.[29]
  •  Jordan – King Abdullah II stated that this assassination of members of Assad's inner circle is a "tremendous blow to the regime."[30]
  •  Lebanon – Lebanese Foreign Minister Adnan Mansour condemned the Damascus bombing.[31]
  •  Russia – Foreign Ministry spokesman Alexander Lukashevich said in a statement "Moscow strongly condemns terrorism in all of its forms and manifestations. We hope that the organizers of the Damascus terrorist act will be found and punished."[32] Press secretary of Russian President Vladimir Putin, Dmitry Peskov, said "As a whole the existing exchange of opinions shows that the appraisals of the situation in Syria and final goals of regulating (violence) for both sides coincide".[33]
  •  South Africa – South Africa strongly condemned the attack and stated that it is opposed to all forms of terrorism and violence.[34]
  •  Turkey – Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan reacted negatively to Syria's explanation of the event.[35]
  •  United Kingdom – Prime Minister David Cameron said that Assad should step down and added "It is time for the United Nations Security Council to Pass clear and tough messages about sanctions, I believe under Chapter 7 of the U.N., and be unambiguous about it."[36] Foreign Secretary William Hague said that the "incident, which we condemn, confirms the urgent need for a chapter VII resolution of the UN Security Council on Syria."[37]
  • United StatesDefense Secretary Leon Panetta said that the country was "rapidly spinning out of control", adding that "the international community must bring maximum pressure on Assad to do what's right, to step down and to allow for that peaceful transition".[33]
  •  Venezuela – The Foreign Ministry condemned the bombing in Damascus and urged foreign powers against military intervention.[38]
  •  United Nations – UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has strongly condemned the attack and reminded that "acts of violence committed by any party are unacceptable and a clear violation of the six-point plan".[39]

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Blomfield, Adrian (18 July 2012). "Syria: Assad 'facing the end' after Damascus bomb attacks". http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/9410184/Syria-Assad-facing-the-end-after-Damascus-bomb-attacks.html. Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Reals, Tucker (18 July 2012). "Syria Defense Minister Gen. Dawoud Rajha killed in explosion in Damascus". http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-202_162-57474510/syria-defense-minister-gen-dawoud-rajha-reportedly-killed-in-explosion-in-damascus/. Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Syria's defense minister killed in Damascus suicide bombing: State TV". 18 July 2012. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/07/18/227035.html. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Syrian TV confirms Assef Shawkat was killed in bombing". 18 July 2012. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4257338,00.html. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Syria blast strikes at heart of Assad's rule". 18 July 2012. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2012/07/20127189355415804.html. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Bomb kills Syria defense minister, Assad's brother-in-law and key aides". 18 July 2012. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/07/18/227035.html. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 El Basha, Thomas (19 July 2012). "Suicide attack kills Assad's brother-in-law, two top generals". http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Middle-East/2012/Jul-18/181002-suicide-bomber-targets-damascus-security-building-syria-tv.ashx#axzz2114QzivD. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Damascus blast: More than meets the eye". 19 July 2012. http://www.presstv.ir/detail/251727.html. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Syria blast strikes at heart of Assad's rule". 18 July 2012. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2012/07/20127189355415804.html. Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Cutler, David (18 July 2012). "Factbox: Fighting in Syria's capital Damascus". http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/sns-rt-us-syria-crisis-damascus-killingsbre86h12q-20120718,0,5691151.story. Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  11. "Profiles of Syria officials Asef Shawkat, Daoud Rajiha and Hassan Turkomani". 18 July 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-18889030. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  12. Jansen, Michael (19 July 2012). "Syrian bombing: Key regime figures killed in attack". http://m.irishtimes.com/newspaper/frontpage/2012/0719/1224320381809.html?via=frontpage. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  13. "4th member of Assad regime, Syria security chief Gen. Hisham Ikhtiyar, dies after Damascus bombing". 20 July 2012. http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-202_162-57476393/4th-member-of-assad-regime-syria-security-chief-gen-hisham-ikhtiyar-dies-after-damascus-bombing/. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  14. "Syrian defense minister killed in Damascus blast, as fighting comes within sight of Assad's palace". 18 July 2012. http://www.haaretz.com/news/middle-east/syrian-defense-minister-killed-in-damascus-blast-as-fighting-comes-within-sight-of-assad-s-palace-1.451946. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  15. Weiss, Michael (18 July 2012). "The End of the Political Solution". http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2012/07/18/the_end_of_the_political_solution. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  16. "Assad's top three aides killed in blast". 19 July 2012. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-07-19/middle-east/32746336_1_assad-state-tv-suicide-blast. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  17. "Damascus blast 'kills' top Assad officials". 19 July 2012. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2012/07/20127189355415804.html. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  18. "Syria blast: Security chief Ikhtiar dies from wounds". 20 July 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-18920733. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  19. "Syria: Bashar al-Assad's brother Maher 'loses leg'". 16 August 2012. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/9480363/Syria-Bashar-al-Assads-brother-Maher-loses-leg.html. Retrieved 16 August 2012. 
  20. "Assad's feared brother lost leg in bomb attack: sources". 16 August 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/08/16/us-syria-crisis-idUSBRE8610SH20120816. Retrieved 16 August 2012. 
  21. "Damascus bomber was bodyguard for Assad's inner circle: Syrian security source". 18 July 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/07/18/us-syria-crisis-bomber-idUSBRE86H0G620120718. Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  22. "Aleppo is far from won: Fisk." Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 26 July 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  23. "Rebel bombing strikes at heart of Syrian regime". 17 July 2012. http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5jaMDslAuWFOCZ20z4eSQz8fw4hpw?docId=bf5da986da3b47249a8531d948e2bd95. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  24. "Syria rebels kill top chiefs of Assad regime in Damascus bomb strike". 18 July 2012. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jul/18/syria-rebels-kill-elite-damascus. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  25. "Syrian TV Shows Assad after Deadly Attack". 19 July 2012. http://en.rian.ru/world/20120719/174688478.html. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  26. "Assad appears in Damascus as Russia, China veto UN resolution". 19 July 2012. http://www.albawaba.com/news/assad-appears-damascus-russia-china-veto-un-resolution-434717. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  27. "Syria TV: Assad swears in new defense minister in first sighting since attack". 19 July 2012. http://www.haaretz.com/news/middle-east/syria-tv-assad-swears-in-new-defense-minister-in-first-sighting-since-attack-1.452288. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  28. "Iran condemns Damascus bombing, says talks needed". 18 July 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/07/18/us-syria-bombing-iran-idUSBRE86H0WV20120718. Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  29. "Assad’s top four men killed by hidden bomb. Urgent consultations in Washington, Jerusalem". 18 July 2012. http://www.debka.com/article/22187/Assad’s-top-four-men-killed-by-hidden-bomb-Urgent-consultations-in-Washington-Jerusalem. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  30. "Jordan's king calls Syria attack 'a tremendous blow' to al-Assad regime". 18 July 2012. http://www.cnn.com/2012/07/18/world/meast/syria-reaction-king-abdullah/. Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  31. "Berri Condemns Damascus Bombing: This Terrorist Act is Aimed at Fragmenting Syrian Army". 19 July 2012. http://www.naharnet.com/stories/en/47110. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  32. "Syrian Defense Minister Killed In Damascus Bomb Attack". 18 July 2012. http://en.rian.ru/world/20120718/174662928.html. Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  33. 33.0 33.1 "US warns Syria is 'spinning out of control'". 18 July 2012. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/9410143/US-warns-Syria-is-spinning-out-of-control.html. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  34. Oluwarotimi, Oluwaseun (19 July 2012). "South Africa Clarifies Position on Syria". http://allafrica.com/stories/201207200595.html. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  35. "Şam'da çatışmalar devam ediyor" (in Turkish). 19 July 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/turkce/haberler/2012/07/120719_syria_fresh_clashes.shtml. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  36. "British PM says Assad must step down". http://www.newsday.com/news/world/british-pm-says-assad-must-step-down-1.3847145. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  37. Glaze, Ben (18 July 2012). "William Hague condemns Syria bombing". http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/william-hague-condemns-syria-bombing-7956577.html. Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  38. "Venezuela condemns Syria bombing, warns against intervention". 19 July 2012. http://in.reuters.com/article/2012/07/19/syria-bombing-venezuela-idINL2E8IJ0YB20120719. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  39. "Secretary-General, alarmed by the intensifying violence in Syria, strongly condemns today’s bomb attack at the National Security Headquarters in Damascus". 18 July 2012. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs//2012/sgsm14418.doc.htm. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 

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