|2A19 (T-12) 100 mm anti-tank gun|
|100-мм противотанковая пушка Т-12 Рапира (2).jpg|
T-12 displayed in the Artillery Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Used by||See Operators|
War of Dagestan
War in Donbass
|Weight||2,750 kg (6,060 lb)|
|Length||9.16 m (30 ft 1 in)|
|Barrel length||8.48 m (27 ft 10 in) 63 calibers|
|Width||1.795 m (5 ft 11 in)|
|Height||1.565 m (5 ft 2 in)|
|Caliber||100 millimetres (3.9 in)|
|Carriage||Transport: Ural-375D (6x6)|
On road: 60 km/h (37 mph)
Off road: 15 km/h (9 mph)
|Elevation||−10° to +20°|
|Traverse||27° left or right|
|Rate of fire||14 rpm (max possible)|
10 rpm (max likely)
4 to 6 rpm (typical)
|Muzzle velocity||See Ammunition|
|Maximum range||See Ammunition|
The T-12 entered service in 1961, replacing the BS-3 100 mm field gun. It was typically deployed in the anti-tank units of armoured and motor rifle regiments to protect flanks against counter-attacks during rapid advances.
In 1970, it was replaced in production by the T-12A or MT-12 "Rapira", which features a new smoothbore gun, the 100 mm 2A29 gun, as well as a redesigned carriage and gun shield to protect the crew from machine gun fire and shell splinters. Thanks to the redesigned carriage, which has a bigger wheel base, the MT-12 can be towed by the MT-LB, at speeds up to 60 km/h on road or 25 km/h cross-country.
The 2A29R "Ruta" or MT-12R is a version with a RLPK-1 radar for engaging targets in a poor visibility environment (smoke/fog). From 1981, the gun could fire laser beam-riding guided missiles 9M117 Kastet (weapon system 9K116) and carried the new designator 2A29K "Kastet" or MT-12K.
The weapon was planned to be superseded by the 2A45 Sprut-B 125 mm smooth bore anti-tank gun. Modern western tanks' frontal armour protection is in excess of what can be penetrated by a 100 mm gun from anything but point-blank range – even using the most modern APFSDS round. For a tank that can manoeuvre to take advantage of the enemy's weaknesses this is less of a problem – but for a weapon that is primarily defensive, this is a serious problem. Today, the T-12 is applied mostly in the role of ordinary artillery, using FRAG-HE shells.
The gun requires a crew of six: commander, driver of the towing vehicle, gun layer, loader, and two ammunition crewmen. When the MT-LB is used as the transporter, 20 rounds are typically carried (10 APFSDS, 4 HE-Frag, 6 HEAT). Since the weapon is a smoothbore, all the ammunition is finned for accuracy during flight.
The standard equipment consists of the panoramic PG-1M sight for indirect fire, and an OP4M-40U telescope for direct fire. The APN-5-40 or APN-6-40 are used for direct fire by night.
The gun can be fitted with the LO-7 ski gear for travel across snow or swampy ground.
Note: penetration numbers for RHA at 90 degrees.
- Round weight: 19.34 kg (42.6 lb)
- Projectile weight: 5.65 kg (12.5 lb)
- Muzzle velocity: 1,575 m/s (5,170 ft/s)
- Maximum range: 3,000 m (3,300 yd)
- 230 mm at 500 m (9 in at 550 yd)
- 180 mm at 2,000 m (7 in at 2,200 yd)
- 140 mm at 3,000 m (5.5 in at 3,300 yd)
- Round weight: 19.9 kg (44 lb)
- Projectile weight: 4.55 kg (10.0 lb)
- Muzzle velocity: 1,548 m/s (5,080 ft/s)
- Maximum range: 3,000 m (3,300 yd)
- Penetration: 225 mm at 1000 m (8.8 in at 1100 yd)
- Round weight: 23.1 kg (51 lb)
- Projectile weight: 9.5 kg (21 lb)
- Muzzle velocity: 975 m/s (3,200 ft/s)
- Maximum range: 1,000 m (1,100 yd)
- Penetration: 400 mm (16 in) 
- Round weight: 28.9 kg (64 lb)
- Projectile weight: 16.7 kg (37 lb)
- Muzzle velocity: 700 m/s (2,300 ft/s)
- Maximum range (indirect): 8,200 m (9,000 yd)
- 9K117 Kastet 3UBK10/3UBK10M
Beam riding laser guided projectile.
- Round weight: 24.5 kg (54 lb)
- Projectile weight: 17.6 kg (39 lb)
- Average speed: 300 m/s (980 ft/s)
- Range: 100–5,000 m (110–5,470 yd)
- Penetration: 550–600 mm (22–24 in)
- Algeria: 10
- Bulgaria: 200; 126 operational in 2016.
- Ethiopia: 50
- Georgia: 16
- Hungary: 106; 16 operational in 2009.
- Kazakhstan: 68
- Kyrgyzstan: 18
- Moldova: 36
- Russia: 2,526; mostly in reserve.
- Turkmenistan: 72
- Ukraine: 500
- Uzbekistan: 36
- East Germany: 267
- Egypt: 100
- Iraq: 100
- People's Republic of Kampuchea: 15
- Mongolia: 25
- Somalia: 25
- South Yemen: 72
- Soviet Union
- Yugoslavia: 350
- A407 - This artillery system was designed by Arsenal-Resita and is very similar to the MT-12. It can fire the same range of ammunition as the T-54/55 tank and has a maximum range of 2,200 m (HEAT) or 4,000 m (APC-T). Subversions are the A407M1 and the A407M2. In Romanian Army service, the A407 is known as the 100 mm anti-tank gun M1977 (Romanian language: Tun antitanc calibrul 100-mm Model 1977
People's Republic of China
- Type 73 - This appears to be a copy of the Soviet T-12.
- Type 86 - This is a 100mm smoothbore anti-tank gun that has some similarities with the 85mm Type 56 (D-44). It fires ammunition of the fixed type, including the Type 73 HE, Type 73 HEAT, Type 73 APFSDS and Type 86 APFSDS to a maximum range of 1,800 m.
- List of anti-tank guns
- List of military equipment of Croatia
- List of artillery of the Soviet Union and Russia
- Zaloga, Steven; Luczak, Wojciech; Beldam, Barry (1992). Armor of the Afghanistan War. Armor 2009. Concord Publications. p. 67. ISBN 978-9623619097.
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- Foss, Christopher (1977). Jane's pocket book of towed artillery. New York: Collier. p. 55. ISBN 0020806000. OCLC 911907988. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/911907988.
- Широкорад А. Б. Гладкоствольные противотанковые пушки («Спрут» и «Рапира») // Техника и вооружение вчера, сегодня, завтра…: Журнал. — Москва: РОО «Техинформ», 1997. — № 10
- Binnie, Jeremy (4 July 2017). "Algeria displays locally developed self-propelled artillery". Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. https://archive.is/20170706000423/http://www.janes.com/article/72018/algeria-displays-locally-developed-self-propelled-artillery. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
- Nerguizian, Aram; Cordesman, Anthony (2009). The North African Military Balance: Force Developments in the Maghreb. Washington DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies Press. pp. 44–46. ISBN 978-089206-552-3.
- "Trade Registers". Armstrade.sipri.org. http://armstrade.sipri.org/armstrade/page/trade_register.php. Retrieved 2013-06-20.
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- Gribincea, Mihai (2001). The Russian policy on military bases: Georgia and Moldova. Oradea: Editura Cogito. p. 223. ISBN 978-9738032200.
- "United Nations Register of Conventional Arms: Report of the Secretary-General". New York: United Nations. 14 July 2009. Archived from the original on 20 June 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170620191121/http://www.pircenter.org/media/content/files/11/13638947040.pdf. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- Zaloga, Stephen (2015). T-64 Battle Tank: The Cold War’s Most Secret Tank. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 978-1472806284.
- "Lectures and General Exercises of the General Staff Academy of the Armed Forces of the USSR". Langley: Central Intelligence Agency. 28 August 1977. Archived from the original on 22 January 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170122230832/https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/DOC_0001197503.pdf. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- Janes Armour and Artillery 2003-2004
- http://www.arsenal.ro/Arsenal/[dead link]
- Jane's Armour and Artillery 2003-2004
- Hull, A.W., Markov, D.R., Zaloga, S.J. (1999). Soviet/Russian Armor and Artillery Design Practices 1945 to Present. Darlington Productions. ISBN 1-892848-01-5.
- Foss, F., Christopher, Artillery of the World
- USA Today article - https://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2003-03-25-war-zone_x.htm
- 100 mm Ammunition https://web.archive.org/web/20070927080509/http://www.milparade.com/catalog/pdf/698.pdf
- 100 mm Ammunition https://web.archive.org/web/20070927080621/http://www.milparade.com/catalog/pdf/697.pdf
- 100 mm Ammunition https://web.archive.org/web/20041223234049/http://www.milparade.com/catalog/pdf/696.pdf
- MT-12 https://web.archive.org/web/20041214105425/http://www.milparade.com/catalog/pdf/99.pdf
- Jane's Armour and Artillery 2005-2006
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Category:100 mm anti-tank gun T-12.|
- T-12 walkaround on DishModels.ru
- Profile part of The Wirlwind War a publication of the United States Army Center of Military History
- http://www.arsenal.ro/Arsenal/[dead link]
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